Antisemitism

Antisemitism (also spelled anti- semitism or anti-semitism ) is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews . [1] [2] [3] A person who holds such positions is called an antisemite . Antisemitism is generally considered to be a form of racism . [4] [5]

Antisemitism may be manifested in many ways, from the point of view of individual Jews to organized pogroms by mobs, the state police, or even military attacks on the entire Jewish communities. Although the term did not come into common use until the 19th century, it is now also applied to historic anti-Jewish incidents. Notable instances of persecution include the Rhineland massacres preceding the First Crusade in 1096, the Edict of Expulsion from England in 1290, the massacres of Spanish Jews in 1391, the persecutions of the Spanish Inquisition , the expulsion from Spain in 1492, theCossack massacres in Ukraine from 1648 to 1657, various anti-Jewish pogroms in the Russian Empire between 1821 and 1906, the 1894-1906 Dreyfus affair in France, the Holocaust in German-occupied Europe , official Soviet anti-Jewish policies , and Arab Muslim involvement in the Jewish exodus from Arab and Muslim countries .

The root word Semite Gives the false printing That antisemitism is directed against all Semitic people , eg , Including Arabs and Assyrians . The compound word antisemite was popularized in Germany in 1879 [6] as a scientific-sounding term for Judenhass “Jew-hatred”, [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] and that has been its common use Then. [12] [13]

Origin and usage in the context of xenophobia

Etymology

The origin of “antisemitic” terminologies is found in the responses of Moritz Steinschneider to the views of Ernest Renan . As Alex Bein writes: “The compound anti-Semitism appears to be used by Steinschneider, who challenged Renan on account of his ‘anti-Semitic prejudices’ [ie, his derogation of the” Semites “as a race ].”  [14]  Avner Falk similarly writes: ‘The German word  antisemitisch  was first used in 1860 by the Austrian Jewish scholar Moritz Steinschneider (1816-1907) in the sentence  antisemitische Vorurteile (antisemitic prejudices). Steinschneider used this phrase to characterize the French philosopher Ernest Renan’s false ideas about how ” Semitic races ” were inferior to ” Aryan races “.  [15]

Pseudoscientific theories concerning race, civilization, and “progress” had become widespread in Europe in the second half of the 19th century, especially as Prussian nationalistic historian Heinrich von Treitschke did much to promote this form of racism. He coined the phrase “the Jews are our misfortune” which would later be widely used by Nazis .  [16]  According to Avner Falk, the term “Semitic” is almost synonymously with “Jewish”, in contrast to Renan’s use of it to refer to a whole range of peoples,  [17]  based generally on linguistic criteria.  [18]

According to Jonathan M. Hess, the term was originally used by its authors to “stress the radical difference between their own ‘antisemitism’ and earlier forms of antagonism toward Jews and Judaism.”  [19]

In 1879 German journalist Wilhelm Marr published a pamphlet,  Der Sieg Judenthums über das Germanenthum. Vom nicht confessionellen Standpunkt aus betrachtet  (  The Victory of the Jewish Spirit of the Germanic Spirit.  ) In which he used the word  Semitismus  interchangeably with the word  Judentum  to denote both “Jewry” (the Jews as a collective and “jewishness” (the quality of being Jewish, or the Jewish spirit).  [20]  [21]  [22]

This use of  Semitismus  Was Followed by a coining of ” Antisemitismus ” which Was used to indicate indication opposition to the Jews as a people  citation needed  ]  and opposition to the Jewish spirit, qui Marr construed as infiltrating German culture. His next pamphlet,  Der Weg zum Siege des Germanenthums über das Judenthum  (  The Way to Victory of the Germanic Spirit over the Jewish Spirit  , 1880), presents a development of Marr’s ideas further and may present the first published version of the German word  Antisemitismus  , “antisemitism”.

The pamphlet became very popular, and in the same year he founded the  Antisemiten-Liga  (League of Antisemites),  [23]  apparently named to follow the “Anti-Kanzler-Liga” (Anti-Chancellor League).  [24]  The league was the first German organization specifically committed to combating the threat to Germany and German culture by the Jews and their influence, and advocating their forced removal from the country.

So far can be ascertained, the word was first widely printed in 1881, when Marr published  Zwanglose Antisemitische Hefte  , and Wilhelm Scherer used the term  Antisemiten  in the January issue of  Neue Freie Presse  .

The Jewish Encyclopedia reports, “In February 1881, a Correspondent of the  Allgemeine Zeitung of Judentums  Speaks of ‘Anti-Semitism’ as a statement which recently came into use (” Allg., Zeit, D. Jud., “1881, 138). On 19 July 1882, the editor says, ‘This quite recent Anti-Semitism is hardly three years old.’ ”  [25]

The related term ” philosemitism ” was coined around 1885.  citation needed  ]

Use

From the outset the term anti-Semitism special racial connotations and boron Meant SPECIFICALLY prejudice contre Jews .  [2]  [13]  The term is confusing, for in modern use Semitic designates a language group, not a race. In this sense, the term is a misnomer, since there are many speakers of Semitic languages (eg Arabs , Ethiopians , and Assyrians ) who are not the objects of anti-Semitic prejudices, while there are many Jews who do not speak Hebrew , Semitic language. Though ‘antisemitism’ has been used to describe prejudiceagainst people who speak other Semitic languages, the validity of such use has been questioned.  [26]  [27]  [28]

The term may be spelled with or without a hyphen (anti-Semitism or anti-Semitism). Some scholars favor the unhyphenated form, “If you use the hyphenated form, you consider the words ‘Semitism’, ‘Semite’, ‘Semitic’ as meaningful” whereas “in antisemitic parlance, ‘Semites’ really stands for Jews, just that . ”  [29]  [30]  [31]  [32]  For example, Emil Fackenheimsupported the unhyphenated spelling, in order to “[dispel] the notion that there is an entity ‘Semitism’ which ‘anti-Semitism’ opposites.”  [33]  Others endorsing an unhyphenated term for the same reason include Padraic O’Hare,Merrimack College ; Yehuda Bauer , professor of Holocaust studies at the Avraham Harman Institute of Contemporary Jewry at Hebrew University of Jerusalem ; and James Carroll , historian and novelist. According to Carroll, who first quotes O’Hare and Bauer on “the existence of something called” Semitism “,” the hyphenated word thus reflects the bipolarity that is at the heart of the problem of antisemitism “.  [34]

Objections to the use of the term, such as the obsolete nature of the term Semitic as a racial term, has been raised since at least the 1930s.  [24]  [35]

Definition

The general definition of antisemitism is hostility or prejudice against Jews, and, according to Olaf Blaschke , has become an “umbrella term for negative stereotypes about Jews”,  [36]  .

Holocaust scholar and the University of New York professor Helen Fein defines it as “a persisting latent structure of hostile beliefs towards Jews as a group of people, and in culture as myth, ideology, folklore, and imagery, and in social actions. or legal discrimination, political mobilization against the Jews, and collective or state violence-which results in and / or is designed to distance, displace, or destroy Jews as Jews. ”

Elaborating on the Fein’s Definition, Dietz Bering of the University of Cologne writes that, to the anti-Semites, “Jews are not only partially and completely bad by nature, that is, their bad traits are incorrigible.” Because of this bad nature: (1) (2) The United States is a member of the international community (2). -Semites feel obliged to unmask the conspiratorial, bad Jewish character. ”  [37]

For Sonja Weinberg, a distinction between economic and religious anti-Judaism , antisemitism in its modern form shows conceptual innovation, a resort to ‘science’ to defend itself, new functional forms and organizational differences. It was anti-liberal, racialist and nationalist. It promoted the myth that Jews conspired to ‘judaise’ the world ; it served to consolidate social identity; it channeled dissatisfactions among the victims of the capitalist system; and it was used as a conservative cultural code to fight emancipation and liberalism.  [38]

Bernard Lewis defines anti-Semitism as a special case of prejudice, hatred, or persecution directed against people who are in some way different from the rest. According to Lewis, anti-Semitism is marked by two distinct features: They are judged according to a different standard of that applied to others, and they are accused of “cosmic evil.” Thus, “it is possible to hate and even to persecute Jews without necessarily being anti-Semitic” unless this hatred or persecution displays one of the two features specific to antisemitism.  [39]

There have been a number of efforts by international and governmental bodies to define antisemitism formally. The United States Department of State states that “while there is no universally accepted definition, there is a clear understanding of what the term encompasses.” For the purposes of its 2005 Report on Global Anti-Semitism, the term was considered to be “hatred to Jews-individually and to a group-that can be attributed to the Jewish religion and / or ethnicity.”  [40]

In 2005, the European Monitoring Center on Racism and Xenophobia (now Fundamental Rights Agency ), then an agency of the European Union , developed a more detailed working definition, which states: “Antisemitism is a certain perception of Jews, which is expressed in the context of Jewish and nonprofit institutions. . ” It also adds that “such manifestations may also be relevant to the state of Israel, conceived as a Jewish collectivity,” but that “criticism of Israel may be regarded as antisemitic.” It is possible for the expression of mankind, including: promoting the harming of Jews in the name of an ideology or religion; negative negative stereotypes of Jews;denying the Holocaust or accusing Jews or Israel of exaggerating it; and accusing Jews of dual loyalty or a greater allegiance to Israel than their own country. It can be said that it is possible to denounce the Jewish people in their right to self-determination, eg by claiming that the existence of a state of Israel is a racist endeavor, can be a manifestation of antisemitism-as can apply double standards of demand by the United States of America.  [41] Late in 2013, the definition of the Fundamental Rights Agency. A spokesman said that it had never been considered as an official and that the agency did not intend to develop its own definition.  [42]  However, despite its disappearance from the website of the Fundamental Rights Agency, the definition has generally been used internationally. The definition was adopted by the European Parliament Working Group on Antisemitism ,  [43]  in 2010 it was adopted by the United States Department of State,  [44]  in 2014 it was adopted in the Operational Hate Crime Guidance of the UK College of Policing  [45]  and was also adopted by the Campaign Against Antisemitism,  [46] and in 2016 it was adopted by the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance,  [47]  making it the most widely adopted definition of antisemitism around the world.

Evolution of use

In 1879, Wilhelm Marr founded the  Antisemiten-Liga  (Anti-Semitic League).  [48]  Identification with antisemitism and anti-Semitism was politically advantageous in Europe during the late 19th century. For example, Karl Lueger , the popular mayor of the turn of the century Vienna , is a skillfully exploited antisemitism.  [49]  In its 1910 obituary of Lueger,  The New York Times  notes that Lueger was “Chairman of the Christian Social Union of the Parliament and the Anti-Semitic Union of the Diet of Lower Austria.”  [50]  In 1895 AC Cuzaorganized the  Universal Anti-Semitic Alliance  in Bucharest. In the period before World War II , where was animosity towards Jews was far more commonplace, it was not uncommon for a person, an organization, or a political party to self-identify as an antisemite or antisemitic.

In 1882, the early Zionist pioneer Judah Leib Pinsker wrote that antisemitism was a psychological response and was inherited from predisposition. He named the condition  Judeophobia  .  [51]

Judeophobia is a variety of demonopathy with the distinction that it is not peculiar to particular races but is common to the whole of mankind. Judeophobia is a psychic aberration. As a psychic aberration it is hereditary, and it is incurable. ‘…’ In this way have Judaism and Anti-Semitism passed for centuries in history as inseparable companions. .’Having analyzed Judeophobia as an hereditary form of demonopathy, peculiar to the human race, and having represented Anti-Semitism as an inherited aberration of the human mind, we must draw the important conclusion that we must give up contending against these hostile impulses as predisposition. (translation from German)  [52]

In the aftermath of the Kristallnacht pogrom in 1938, German Propaganda Minister Goebbels announced: “The German people is anti-Semitic, it has no desire to have its rights restricted to the future of parasites of the Jewish race.”  [53]

After the 1945 victory of the Allies over Nazi Germany , and particularly after the full extent of the Nazi genocide against the thesis, the term “anti-Semitism” gained pejorative connotations. This mark has a full circle shift in use, from an era just decades earlier when “Jew” was used as a pejorative term.  [54]  [55]  Yehuda Bauer wrote in 1984: “There are no anti-Semites in the world … Nobody says, ‘I am anti-Semitic.’ You can not, after Hitler The word has gone out of fashion. ”  [56]

events

Antisemitism manifests itself in a variety of ways. René König mentions social antisemitism, economic antisemitism, religious antisemitism, and political antisemitism as examples. König points out that these different forms demonstrate that the origins of anti-Semitic prejudice are rooted in different historical periods. König asserts that differences in the chronology of different antisemitic prejudices and the irregular distribution of such prejudices over different segments of the population create “serious difficulties in the definition of the different kinds of anti-Semitism.”  [57] These difficulties have contributed to the existence of different taxonomies that have been developed to categorize the forms of antisemitism. The forms identified are substantially the same; it is primarily the number of forms and their definitions that differ. Bernard Lazarus identified three forms of antisemitism: Christian antisemitism , economic antisemitism, and ethnologic antisemitism.  [58]  William Brustein names four categories: religious, racial, economic and political.  [59]  The Roman Catholic historian Edward Flannerydistinguished four types of anti-Semitism:  [60]

  • political and economic antisemitism, giving as examples Cicero  [61]  and Charles Lindbergh ;  [62]
  • theological or religious antisemitism , sometimes known as anti-Judaism ;  [63]
  • nationalistic antisemitism, citing Voltaire and other Enlightenment thinkers, who attacked Jews for the purpose of having certain characteristics, such as greed and arrogance, and for observing customs such as kashrut and Shabbat ;  [64]
  • and racial antisemitism , with its extreme form resulting in Holocaust by the Nazis .  [65]

Louis Harap separates “economic antisemitism” and merges “political” and “nationalistic” antisemitism into “ideological antisemitism”. Harap also adds a category of “social antisemitism”.  [66]

  • religious (Jew as Christ-killer),
  • economic (Jew as banker, usurer, money-obsessed),
  • social (Jew as social inferior, “pushy,” vulgar, therefore excluded from personal contact),
  • racist (Jews as an inferior “race”),
  • ideological (judged as subversive or revolutionary),
  • cultural and structural fiber of civilization.

Gustavo Perednik “Judeophobia” has a number of unique features which include permanence, depth, obsessiveness, irrationality, endurance, ubiquity, and danger.  [67]  He also wrote in his book  The Judeophobia that “The Jews were accused of being the creators of the Communists of Ruling Capitalism.” If they live in non-Jewish countries, they are accused of double-loyalties, if they live in the Jewish country, of When they spend their money, they are reproached for being ostentatious when they are not spending their money, they are called rootless cosmopolitan or hardened chauvinists. if they do not, of shutting themselves away. ”  [68]  [69]

Cultural antisemitism

Louis Harap olefins cultural antisemitism as “that species of anti-Semitism That loads the Jews with corrupting a Given cultural and Attempting to supplant gold succeeding in supplanting the preferred crop with a uniform, crude,” Jewish “culture.  [70]  Similarly, Eric Kandel characterizes cultural antisemitism as being based on the notion of “Jewishness” as a “religious or cultural tradition that is acquired through learning, through distinctive traditions and education.” According to Kandel, this form of antisemitism views social characteristics that are acquired through acculturation. ”  [71] Niewyk and Nicosia characterize cultural antisemitism as focusing on and condemning “the Jews’ aloofness from the societies in which they live.”  [72]  An important feature of cultural antisemitism is that it considers the negative attributes of Judaism to be redeemable by education or by religious conversion.  [73]

Religious antisemitism

Religious antisemitism , also known as anti-Judaism, is antipathy to Jews because of their perceived religious beliefs. In theory, antisemitism and attacks against individual Jews would have stopped Judaism or changed their public faith, especially by conversion to the official or right religion. However, in some cases discrimination continues after conversion, in the case of Christianized  Marranos  or Iberian Jews in the late 15th century and 16th century who have been suspected of secretly practicing Judaism or Jewish customs.  [60]

Although the origins of antisemitism are rooted in the Judeo-Christian conflict, other forms of antisemitism have developed in modern times. Frederick Schweitzer asserts that, “most scholars ignore the Christian foundation on which the modern antisemitic edifice rests and invoke political antisemitism, cultural antisemitism, racism or racial antisemitism, economic antisemitism and the like.”  [74]  William Nichols draws a distinction between religious antisemitism and modern antisemitism based on racial or ethnic grounds: “The dividing line was the possibility of effective conversion … a Jew ceased to be a Jew upon baptism .” From the perspective of racial antisemitism, however, “… the assimilated Jew was still a Jew, even after baptism …. onward, it is no longer possible to draw clear lines of distinction between religious and racial forms of hostility towards Jews … antisemitism becomes almost unavoidable, even before explicitly racist doctrines appear. ”

Economic antisemitism

The underlying premise of economic antisemitism is that Jews perform harmful economic activities or when they are performed by Jews.  [75]

Linking Jews and money underpins the most damaging and lasting Antisemitic ducks .  [76]  Antisemites claim that Jews control the world finances, a theory promoted in the fraudulent Protocols of the Elders of Zion , and later repeated by Henry Ford and his Dearborn Independent . In the modern era, such myths continue to be spread in such books  The Secret Relationship Between Blacks and Jews  published by the Nation of Islam , and on the internet. Derek Penslar writes that there are two components to the financial ducks :  [77]

(a) Jews are savages that “are temperamentally incapable of performing honest labor”
b) Jews are “leaders of a financial cabal seeking world domination”

Abraham Foxman describes six facets of the financial ducks:

  1. All Jews are wealthy  [78]
  2. Jews are stingy and greedy  [79]
  3. Powerful Jews control the world  [80]
  4. Jewish religion emphasizes profit and materialism  [81]
  5. It is okay for Jews to cheat non-Jews  [82]
  6. Jews use their power to benefit “their own kind”  [83]

Gerald Krefetz summarizes the myth as “[Jews] control the banks, the money supply, the economy, and businesses-of the community, of the country, of the world”.  [84]  Krefetz gives, as illustrations, many slurs and proverbs (in several different languages) which suggest that Jews are stingy, or greedy, or miserly, or aggressive bargainers.  [85]  During the nineteenth century, Jews were described as “scurrilous, stupid, and tight-fisted”, but after the Jewish Emancipation and the rise of Jews to the middle-or upper-class in Europe were portrayed as “clever, devious , and manipulative financial out to dominate [world finance] “.  [86]

Leon Poliakov asserts that economic antisemitism is not a distinct form of antisemitism, but merely a manifestation of theologic antisemitism (because, without the theological causes of antisemitism, there would be no economic antisemitism). In contrast to this view, Derek Penslar contends that in the modern era, the economic antisemitism is “distinct and nearly constant” but the antisemitism is “often subdued”.  [87]

An academic study by Francesco D’Acunto, Marcel Prokopczuk, and Michael Weber, which is the most brutal history of anti-Semitic persecution in the world. Therefore, they tend to invest in the market and make poor financial decisions. The study concludes that the persecution of minorities does not reduce the long-term wealth of the persecuted, but of the persecutors as well.  [88]

Racial antisemitism

Racial anti-Semitism is prejudice against Jews as a racial / ethnic group, rather than Judaism as a religion.  [89]

Racial antisemitism is the idea that Jews are a distinct and inferior race compared to their host nations. In the late 19th century and early 20th century, it gained mainstream acceptance as part of the eugenics movement, which categorized non-Europeans as inferior. Northern Europeans, or “Aryans”, were superior. Racial antisemites saw the Jews as part of a Semitic race and their non-European origins and culture. They saw the Jews as if they were converted to the majority religion.  quote needed  ]

Racial antisemitism replaced the hatred of Judaism with the hatred of Jews as a group. In the context of the Industrial Revolution , following the Jewish Emancipation , Jews rapidly urbanized and experienced a period of greater social mobility. With the decreasing role of religion in public life, the combination of growing nationalism , the rise of eugenics , and resentment at the socio-economic success of the Jews led to the newer, and more virulent, racist antisemitism.  quote needed  ]

According to William Nichols, religious anti-Semitism may be distinguished from modern anti-Semitism based on racial or ethnic grounds. “The dividing line was the possibility of effective conversion … a Jew ceased to be a Jew upon baptism.” However, with racial antisemitism, “From the Enlightenment onward, it is no longer possible to draw clear lines of distinction between religious and racial forms of hostility of Jews. Once again, they have been emancipated and secularized by their opposition to the Christian hostility towards Jews, the new term antisemitism becomes almost unavoidable, even before explicitly racist doctrines appear. ”  [90]

In the early 19th century, a number of laws enabling emancipation of the Jews were enacted in Western European countries.  [91]  [92]  The old laws restricting them to ghettos , the rights of worship and occupation, were rescinded. Despite this, traditional discrimination and hostility to Jews on the subject of racial antisemitism , Joseph Gobineau’s Joseph Arthur of the work of racial theorists and particularly his  Essay on the Inequality of the Human Race  of 1853-5. Nationalist agendas based on ethnicity , known as ethnonationalism, usually excluded the Jews from the national community as an alien race.  [93]  Allied to this theories of Social Darwinism , which stressed a conflict between higher and lower races of human beings. Such theories, usually posited by northern Europeans, advocated the superiority of white Aryans to Semitic Jews.  [94]

Political anti-Semitism

“The whole problem of the Jews exists only in their states of energy and higher intelligence, their accumulated capital of spirit and will, gathered from generation to generation through a long schooling in suffering, must become so preponderant to arouse mass envy and hatred, so – in direct proportion to the degree to which they act up nationalistially – the literary obscenity of leading the Jews to the scapegoats of every conceivable public and internal misfortune is spreading.
– Friedrich Nietzsche , 1886, [MA 1475]  [95]

William Brustein defines political antisemitism as hostility towards Jews based on the belief that Jews seek national and / or world power. “Yisrael Gutman characterizes political antisemitism as tending to” lay responsibility on the Jews for political and economic crises “while seeking to” exploit opposition and resistance to Jewish influence as elements in political party platforms. ”  [96]

According to Viktor Karády, political antisemitism has become widespread after the legal emancipation of the Jews and sought after some of the consequences of that emancipation.  [97]

Conspiracy theories

See also: List of conspiracy theories § Antisemitic conspiracy theories

Holocaust denial and Jewish conspiracy theories are also considered forms of antisemitism.  [98]  [99]  [100]  [101]  [102]  [102]  [103]  [104] Zoological conspiracy theories have been propagated by the Arab media and Arabic language websites, alleging a “Zionist plot” behind the use of animals to attack civilians or to conduct espionage.  [105]

New antisemitism

Main article: New anti-Semitism

Starting in the 1990s, some scholars have advanced the concept of new antisemitism , coming together from the left , the right , and radical Islam , which tends to focus on opposition to the creation of a Jewish homeland in the State of Israel ,  [106]  They argue that the language of anti-Zionism and criticism of Israel are used to attack Jews more broadly. In this view, the proponents of the new concept believe that criticisms of Israel and Zionismare often disproportionate in degree and unique in kind, and they attribute this to antisemitism. Jewish scholar Gustavo Perednik has posited that anti-Zionism in itself represents a form of discrimination against Jews, in which it singles out Jewish national aspirations as an illegitimate and racist endeavor, and “proposed actions that would result in the death of millions of Jews” .  [107]  It is asserted that the new antisemitism deploys traditional antisemitic motives, including older motives such as the blood libel .  [106]

Criticism of the concept of antisemitism as antisemitism, and antisemitism as antisemitism in order to silence and criticism of the state of Israel , and by associating anti-Zionism with antisemitism, misused to taint to Israeli actions and policies.  [108]

Indology

Main article: Indology

German indologists arbitrarily identified “layers” in the Mahabharata and Bhagavad Gita with the objective of fueling European anti-Semitism via the Indo-Aryan migration theory .  [109]  This identification required equating Brahminswith Jews , resulting in anti-Brahmanism.  [109]

History

Many authors see the roots of modern antisemitism in both pagan antiquity and early Christianity. Jerome Chanes identified six stages in the historical development of anti-Semitism:  [110]

  1. Pre-Christian anti-Judaism in ancient Greece and Rome
  2. Christian antisemitism in antiquity and the Middle Ages
  3. Traditional Muslim antisemitism which was at least, in its classical form-nuanced in that Jews were a protected class
  4. Political, social and economic antisemitism of Enlightenment and post-Enlightenment Europe which the groundwork for racial antisemitism
  5. Racial antisemitism that arose in the 19th century and culminated in Nazism in the 20th century
  6. Contemporary antisemitism which has been labeled by some as the New Antisemitism

Chanes suggests that these six stages could be divided into three categories: “ancient antisemitism, which was primarily ethnic in nature, Christian antisemitism , which was religious, and the racial antisemitism of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.”  [111]

Ancient world

The first clear examples of anti-Jewish sentiment can be traced to the 3rd century BCE to Alexandria ,  [60]  the home to the Largest Jewish Diaspora community in the world at the time and Where the Septuagint , a Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible , was produced. Manetho , an Egyptian priest and historian of that era, wrote scathingly of the Jews. His themes are repeated in the works of Chaeremon , Lysimachus , Poseidonius , Apollonius Molon , and Apion and Tacitus .  [112]  Agatharchides of Cnidusridiculed the practices of the Jews and the “absurdity of Their Law”, making a mocking reference to how Ptolemy Lagus Was ble to invade Jerusalem in 320 BCE Because icts Gutman Were observing the  Shabbat  .  [112]  One of the earliest anti-Jewish edicts , promulgated by Antiochus IV Epiphanes in about 170-167 BCE, sparked a revolt of the Maccabees in Judea .  [113]  : 238

Manetho’s anti-Jewish writings, antisemitism may have originated in Egypt and been spread by “the Greek retelling of ancient Egyptian prejudices”.  [114]  The ancient Jewish philosopher Philo of Alexandria describes an attack on Jews in Alexandria in 38 CE in which thousands of Jews died.  [115]  [116]  The violence in Alexandria may have been caused by the Jews being portrayed as misanthropes .  [117]  Cherikover argues that the reason for hatred of Jews in the Hellenistic period was their separateness in the Greek cities, the  poleis  .  [118] Bohak has argued, however, that early anti-Semitic or anti-Judaic or anti-Semitic events have been held against the Jews, and that they have seen them as barbarians.  [119]  Statements exhibiting prejudice against Jews and their religion can be found in the works of many pagan Greek and Roman writers.  [120] Edward Flannery writes that it was the Jews’ refusal to accept Greek religious and social standards that marked them out. Hecataetus of Abdera, a Greek historian of the early third century BCE, wrote that Moses “in remembrance of the exile of his people, instituted for them a misanthropic and inhospitable way of life.” Manetho , an Egyptian historian, wrote que la Jews Were Expelled Egyptian lepers Who HAD-been taught by Moses “not to adore the gods.” Edward Flannery describes antisemitism in ancient times as essentially “cultural, taking the shape of a national xenophobia played out in political settings.”  [60]

There are examples of Hellenistic rulers desecrating the Temple and the banning of Jewish religious practices, such as circumcision , Shabbat observance, study of Jewish religious books, etc. Examples may be found in anti-Jewish riots in Alexandria in the 3rd century BCE.

The Jewish Diaspora on the Nile Elephantine Island , which was founded by mercenaries, experienced the destruction of its temple in 410 BCE.  [121]

Relationships between the Jewish people and the occupying Roman Empire were at times antagonistic and resulted in several rebellions . According to Suetonius , the Emperor Tiberius expelled from Rome. The 18th-century English historian Edward Gibbon identified a more tolerant period in Roman-Jewish relations beginning in about 160 CE.  [60]  However, when Christianity became the state religion of the Roman Empire, the state’s attitude towardthe Jews gradually worsened .

James Carroll Asserted: “Jews Accounted for 10% of the total population of the Roman Empire . By That ratio, if other factors Such As pogroms and conversions HAD not intervened, there Would Be 200 million Jews in the world today, INSTEAD of something like 13 million. ”  [122]  [123]

Persecutions during the Middle Ages

In the late 6th century CE, the newly Catholicised Visigothic kingdom in Hispania issued a series of anti-Jewish edicts which forbad Jews from marrying Christians, practicing circumcision, and observing Jewish holy days.  [124]  Continuing throughout the 7th century, both Visigothic kings and the Church were active in creating social aggression and towards Jews with “civic and ecclesiastic punishments”,  [125]  ranging between forced conversion, slavery, exile and death.  [126]

From the 9th century, the medieval Islamic world classified Jews and Christians as  dhimmis  , and allowed Jews to practice Their religion more freely than They Could do in medieval Christian Europe . Under Islamic rule , there was a Golden age of Jewish culture in Spain that lasted until at least the 11th century.  [127]  It was concluded that several Muslim pogromsagainst Jews took place on the Iberian Peninsula , including those that occurred in Córdoba in 1011 and in Granada in 1066 .  [128]  [129]  [130] Several decrees ordering the destruction of synagogues were also enacted in Egypt , Syria , Iraq, and Yemen from the 11th century. In addition, Jews have been forced to convert to Islam in many parts of Yemen , Morocco and Baghdad several times between the 12th and 18th centuries.  [131]  The Almohads , who had taken control of the Almoravids ‘ Maghribi and Andalusian Territories by 1147,  [132] were far more fundamentalist in outlook compared to their predecessors, and they treated the  dhimmis  harshly. Faced with the choice of death or conversion, many Jews and Christians emigrated.  [133]  [134]  [135]  Some, such as the family of Maimonides ,  [133]  while some others went northward to settle in the growing Christian kingdoms.  [136]

During the Middle Ages in Europe there was persecution against Jews in many places, with blood libels , expulsions, forced conversions and massacres . A hand justification of prejudice against Jews in Europe was religious.

The persecution hit its first peak during the Crusades . In the First Crusade (1096), hundreds of thousands of Jews have been killed by the crusaders arrived.  [137]  This was the first major outbreak of anti-Jewish violence in Christian Europe outside Spain and was cited by Zionists in the 19th century as indicating the need for a state of Israel.  [138]

In the Second Crusade (1147) the Jews in Germany were subject to several massacres. The Jews were also subjected to attacks by the Shepherds’ Crusades of 1251 and 1320 , as well as Rintfleisch knights in 1298. The Crusades were followed by expulsions, including, in 1290, the banishing of all English Jews; in 1394, the expulsion of 100,000 Jews in France;  [139]  and in 1421, the expulsion of thousands from Austria. Many of the expelled Jews fled to Poland.  [140] In Medieval and Renaissance Europe, a major contributor to the deepening of anti-Semitic sentiment and legal action among the Christian populations was the popular preaching of the zealous reform religious orders, the Franciscans (especially Bernardino of Feltre) and Dominicans (especially Vincent Ferrer), who combed Europe and promoted anti-Semitism through their often fiery, emotional appeals.  [141]

As the Black Death epidemics devastated Europe in the mid-14th century, the death of a large part of the population, Jews were used as scapegoats . Rumors spread that they caused the disease by deliberately poisoning wells. Hundreds of Jewish communities were destroyed in numerous persecutions . Though Pope Clement VI tried to protect them by issuing two papal bulls in 1348, the Jews were burned alive in Strasbourg , where the plague had not yet affected the city.  [142]

17th century

During the mid-to-late 17th century the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was devastated by several conflicts, in which the Commonwealth lost over a third of its population (over 3 million people), and Jewish losses were counted in the millions. The first of These conflicts Was the Khmelnytsky Uprising , When Bohdan Khmelnytsky ‘s supporters massacred tens of Thousands of Jews in the eastern and southern areas he controlled (today’s Ukraine ). The number of deaths is estimated at 100,000 to 200,000, which also includes emigration, deaths from diseases and captivity in the Ottoman Empire., called  jasyr  .  [143]  [144]

European immigrants to the United States brought antisemitism to the country as early as the 17th century. Peter Stuyvesant , the Dutch governor of New Amsterdam , implemented plans to prevent Jews from settling in the city. During the Colonial Era, the American government limited the political and economic rights of Jews. It was not until the American Revolutionary War that the right to vote. However, even at their peak, the restrictions on Jews in the United States were never as stringent as they had been in Europe.  [145]

In the Zaydi imamate of Yemen , Jews were also singled out for discrimination in the 17th century, which culminated in the general expulsion of all Jews from the Yemen to the arid coastal plain of Tihamah and the Mawza Exile .  [146]

Enlightenment

In 1744 Frederick II of Prussia limited the number of Jews allowed to live in Breslau to only ten so-called “protected” Jewish families and Encouraged has similar practice in other Prussian cities. In 1750 he issued the  Revidiertes General Privilegium und Reglement vor die Judenschaft  : the “protected” Jews had an alternative to “or abstain from marriage or leave Berlin ” (quoting Simon Dubnow ). In the Sami year, Archduchess of Austria Maria Theresaordered Jews out of Bohemia goal soon reversed her position on the requirement That Jews Pay for Their readmission every ten years. malke-geld  (queen’s money). In 1752 she introduced the law to Jewish family to one son. In 1782, Joseph II abolished most of these persecution practices in his  Tolerance  , on the condition that Yiddish and Hebrew were banned from public records. Moses Mendelssohn wrote that “Such a tolerance is more dangerous play in tolerance than open persecution.”

Thousands of Jews were slaughtered by Cossack Haidamaks in the 1768 massacre of Uman . In 1772, the empress of Russia Catherine II forced the Jews of the Pale of Settlement to stay in their shtetls and forbade them from returning to the towns that they occupied before the partition of Poland .  [147]  Decreed by Emperor Nicholas I of Russia in 1827 made compulsory for Jews under 18 years of age to be drafted to cantonist schools for a 25-year military service in order to become baptized.  [148]

According to Arnold Ages, Voltaire ‘s “Philosophical Letters, Philosophical Dictionary, and Candide, to name but a few of his best known works, are saturated with comments on Judaism and the vast majority are negative”.  [149] Paul H. Meyer adds: “There is no question that Voltaire, particularly in his late years, has a strong impact on the opinion of the Jews. in France.”  [150]  Thirty of the 118 articles in Voltaire’s  Philosophical Dictionary  .  [151]

Islamic antisemitism in the 19th century

Historian Martin Gilbert writes that it was in the 19th century that the position of Jews worsened in Muslim countries. Benny Morris writes that one symbol of Jewish degradation is the phenomenon of stone-throwing at Jews by Muslim children. Morris quotes a 19th-century traveler: “I’ve seen a little fellow of six years old, with a troop of fat toddlers of only three and four, teaching [them] to throw stones at a Jew, and one little urchin would, with the greatest coolness, waddle up to the man and literally spit upon his Jewish gaberdine.We would be obliged to submit this report to Mahommedan. ”  [152]

In the midst of the 19th century, JJ Benjamin wrote about the life of Persian Jews , describing conditions and beliefs that went back to the 16th century: “… they are obliged to live in a separate part of town … Under the pretext of their being they are treated with the greatest severity and should they enter a street, inhabited by Mussulmans, they are pelted by the boys and mobs with stones and dirt …. ”  [153]

Secular gold racial antisemitism

In 1850 the German composer Richard Wagner – who has been called “the inventor of modern antisemitism”  [154]  – published  Das Judenthum in der Musik  (roughly “Jewishness in Music”  [154]  ) under a pseudonym in the  Neue Zeitschrift für Musik  . The essay was as an attack on Jewish composers, particularly Wagner’s contemporaries, and rivals, Felix Mendelssohn and Giacomo Meyerbeer , but expanded to accuse Jews of a harmful and alien element in German culture, who have been corrupted, in fact, parasites unable to creating truly “German” art. The crux was, of course, the manipulation and control by the Jews of the money economy:  [154]

According to the present constitution of this world, the rules of the world and the rule of law, so long as they remain unchanged.  [154]

The Wagner’s name was published in 1869, the concept of the corrupting Jew had become so widely held that Wagner’s name was affixed to it.  [154]

Antisemitism can also be found in many of the Grimms’ Fairy Tales by Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm , published from 1812 to 1857. It is one of a number of theories of the history of the world, such as “The Good Bargain” (”  Der gute Handel ”  ) and” The Jew Among Thorns “(  ” Der Jude im Dorn ”  ).

The middle 19th century saw the official harassment of the Jews, especially in Eastern Europe under Czarist influence. For example, in 1846, 80 Jews approached the governor in order to retain their right to wear their clothes, but were soon rebuffed by having their hair and beards forcefully cut, at their own expense.  [155]

In America, even such influential figures as Walt Whitman tolerated bigotry toward the Jews. During his time as editor of the Brooklyn Eagle (1846-1848), the newspaper published historical casting sketches Jews in a bad light.  [156]

The Dreyfus Affair was an infamous antisemitic event of the late 19th century and early 20th century. Alfred Dreyfus , a Jewish artillery captain in the French Army , was accused in 1894 of passing secrets to the Germans. As a result of these charges, Dreyfus was convicted and sentenced to life imprisonment on Devil’s Island . The actual spy, Marie Charles Esterhazy, was acquitted. The event caused great uproar among the French, Dreyfus was actually guilty or not. Emile Zolaaccused the army of corrupting the French justice system. However, general consensus held that Dreyfus was guilty: 80% of the press in France condemned him. This attitude among the majority of the French population reveals the underlying antisemitism of the time period.  [157]

Adolf Stoecker (1835-1909), The Lutheran Short Chaplain to Kaiser Wilhelm I , founded in 1878 an antisemitic, anti-liberal political party called the Christian Social Party .  [158]  [159]  This party always remains small, and its support dwindled after Stoecker’s death, with most of its members eventually joining larger conservative groups such as the German National People’s Party .

Some scholars view Karl Marx’s essay  on the question  as antisemitic, and argues that he often used antisemitic epithets in his published and private writings.  [160]  [161]  [162]  These scholars argue that Marx equates Judaism with capitalism in his essay, helping to spread that idea. Some further argues that the essay influenced National Socialist , as well as Soviet and Arab anti-Semites.  [163]  [164]  [165]  Marx himself had Jewish ancestry, and Albert Lindemannand Hyam Maccoby suggested that he was embarrassed by it .  [166]  [167] Others argue that Marx consistently supported Prussian Jewish communities’ struggles to achieve equal political rights. These scholars argue that “On the Jewish Question” is a criticism of Bruno Bauer’s arguments that Jews must convert to Christianity before being emancipated, and is more generally a critic of liberal rights discourses and capitalism.  [168]  [169]  [170]  [171]  Iain Hamphsher-Monk wrote that “This work has been cited as evidence for Marx’s supposed anti-semitism, but only the most superficial reading of it could sustain such an interpretation. ”  [172]  David McLellan and Francis Wheenargue that readers should interpret  On the Jewish Question in the deeper context of Marx’s debates with Bruno Bauer , author of  The Jewish Question  , about Jewish emancipation in Germany. Wheen says that “Those critics, who see this as a foretaste of ‘Mein Kampf’, overlook one, essential point: in spite of the clumsy phraseology and crude stereotyping, the essay was actually written as a defense of the Jews. retort to Bruno Bauer, who had argued that Christians should be baptized “.  [173]  According to McLellan, Marx used the word  Judith  colloquially, meaning  business  , arguing that Germans must be emancipated from the capitalist mode of productionnot Judaism or Jews in particular. McLellan concludes that readers should interpret the second half as “an extended pun at Bauer’s expense”.  [174]

20th century

Between 1900 and 1924, approximately 1.75 million Jews migrated to America, the bulk from Eastern Europe. Before 1900 American Jews had always amounted to 1% of America’s total population, but by 1930s Jews formed about 3.5%. This increase, combined with the upward social mobility of some Jews, contributed to a resurgence of antisemitism. In the first half of the 20th century, in the USA, Jews were discriminated against in employment, access to residential and resort areas, membership in clubs and organizations, and in tightened quotas on Jewish enrollment and teaching positions in colleges and universities. The lynching of Leo Frank by a mob of prominent citizens in Marietta, Georgia in 1915 turned the spotlight on antisemitism in the United States.  [175] The case was also used for the Ku Klux Klan renewal which had been inactive since 1870.  [176]

At the beginning of the twentieth century, the Beilis Trial in Russia represented incidents of blood-libel in Europe. Christians used allegations of Jews killing Christians as a justification for the killing of Jews.

Antisemitism in America reaches its peak during the interwar period. The automotive pioneer manufacturer Henry Ford propagated antisemitic ideas in his newspaper  The Dearborn Independent  (published by Ford from 1919 to 1927). The radio speeches of Father Coughlin in the late 1930s attacked This Franklin D. Roosevelt ‘s New Deal and Promoted the concept of a Jewish financial conspiracy. Some prominent politicians shared such views: Louis T. McFadden , Chairman of the United States House Committee on Banking and Currency, blamed Jews for Roosevelt’s decision to abandon the gold standard, and claimed that “in the United States today, the Gentiles have the slips of paper while the Jews have the lawful money”. [177]

In the early 1940s the Charles Lindbergh aviator and many prominent Americans led The America First Committee in opposing any involvement in the war against Fascism . During his July 1936 visit to Germany, Lindbergh wrote that “there is more intelligent leadership in Germany than is generally recognized”. The German American Bund Held parades in New York City During the late 1930s, Where members Wore Nazi uniforms and raised flags featuring swastikas Alongside American flags.

Sometimes race riots , in Detroit in 1943 , targeted Jewish businesses for looting and burning.  [178]

In Germany, Nazism led Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party , who came to power on 30 January 1933 shortly afterwards instituted repressive legislation which denied the Jews basic civil rights.  [179]  In 1935, the Nuremberg Laws prohibited sexual relations and marriages between “Aryans” and Jews as  Rassenschande  (“race disgrace”) and stripped all German Jews, even quarter-and-half Jews, of their citizenship, (their official title became “subjects of the state”).  [180]  It was a pogrom on the night of 9-10 November 1938, dubbed  Kristallnacht  , in which Jews were killed, their property destroyed and their synagogues torched. [181]  Antisemitic laws, agitation and propaganda were extended to German-occupied Europe in the wake of conquest, often building on local antisemitic traditions. In the East the Third Reich forced Jews into ghettos in Warsaw , Kraków , Lvov , Lublin and Radom .  [182]  After the invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941 a campaign of mass murder, conducted by the Einsatzgruppen , culminated from 1942 to 1945 in systematic genocide : the Holocaust .  [183]  Eleven million Jews were targeted for extermination by the Nazis, and some six million were eventually killed.  [183] [184]  [185]

Antisemitism was commonly used as an instrument for settling personal conflicts in the Soviet Union , starting with the conflict between Joseph Stalin and Leon Trotsky and continuing through numerous conspiracy-theories spread by official propaganda. Antisemitism in the USSR reached new heights after 1948 during the campaign against the ” rootless cosmopolitan ” (euphemism for “Jew”) in which numerous Yiddish-language poets, writers, painters and sculptors were killed or arrested.  [186]  [187]  This culminated in the so-called Doctors’ Plot (1952-1953). Similar antisemitic propaganda in Poland resulted in the Polish Jewish survivors from the country. [187]

After the war, the Kielce pogrom and the ” March 1968 events ” in communist Poland represent further incidents of antisemitism in Europe. The anti-Jewish violence in postwar Poland has a common theme of blood libel rumors.  [188]  [189]

21st-century European antisemitism

Further information: Antisemitism in Europe § In the 21st century

Assistants in the field of war crimes, stabbings and other violence, which increased markedly, resulting in serious injury and death.  [190]  [191]  A 2015 report by the US State Department on religious freedom that “European anti-Israel sentiment crossed the line into anti-Semitism.”  [192]

This rise in antisemitic attacks is associated with Both the Muslim anti-Semitism and the rise of far-right political party as a result of the economic crisis of 2008.  [193]  This rise in the media for far right ideas in western and eastern Europe Antisemitic acts, mostly attacks on Jewish memorials, synagogues and cemeteries, but also a number of physical attacks against Jews.  [194]

In Eastern Europe the dissolution of the Soviet Union and the instability of the new states of the world of nationalist movements and the accusation against Jews for the economic crisis, taking over the local economy and bribing the government alongside traditional religious motives for antisemitism such as blood libels . Most of the antisemitic incidents are against Jewish cemeteries and building (community centers and synagogues). Nevertheless, there were several violent attacks against Jews in Moscow in 2006 when a neo-Nazi stabbed 9 people at the Bolshaya Bronnaya Synagogue,  [195]  the failed bomb attack on the same synagogue in 1999,  [196]  the threats against Jewish pilgrims Uman, Ukraine  [197] and the attack against a menorah by extremist Christian organization in Moldova in 2009.  [198]

Europeans are concerned about antisemitism because historically, societies with a large degree of anti-Semitism are self-destructive.  [199]  Furthermore, the Jews of Europe-have Themselves Generally aligned with Europe’s democratic elite, a class Whose future is uncertain selon the Economist Intelligence Unit .  [200]

21st-century Arab anti-Semitism

Robert Bernstein , founder of Human Rights Watch , says that anti-Semitism is “deeply ingrained and institutionalized” in “Arab nations in modern times.”  [201]

In a 2011 survey by the Pew Research Center , all of the Muslim-majority Middle Eastern countries polled held positive positive opinions of Jews. In the questionnaire, only 2% of Egyptians , 3% of Lebanese Muslims, and 2% of Jordanians reported having a positive view of Jews. Muslim-majority countries outside the Middle East with positive views of Jews, with 4% of Turks and 9% of Indonesians viewing Jews favorably.  [202]

According to a 2011 exhibition at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, DC, United States, some of the dialogue from Middle East media and commentators about Jews bear a striking resemblance to Nazi propaganda .  [203]  According to Josef Joffe of  Newsweek  , “anti-Semitism-the real stuff, not just bad-mouthing particular Israeli policies-is as much part of the world as the hijab or the hookah. in the Arab world, Jew hatred remains culturally endemic. ”  [204]

Muslim clerics in the Middle East have often been referred to as descendants of apes and pigs, which are the official epithets for Jews and Christians.  [205]  [206]  [207]

According to Professor Robert Wistrich , Director of the Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Antisemitism (SICSA), the calls for the destruction of Israel by Iran or by Hamas , Hezbollah , Islamic Jihad , or the Muslim Brotherhood , represent a contemporary mode of genocidal antisemitism.  [208]

causes

This section needs expansion  .  You can help by adding to it .  (July 2011)

Antisemitism has-been Explained in terms of racism , xénophobie , projected guilt , displaced aggression, and the search for a scapegoat .  [209]  Some explanations assign partial blame to the perception of Jewish people as unsociable. Such a perception may have arisen by many people having their own communities, with their own practices and laws.  [210]

It has aussi beens suggéré That shares of antisemitism Arose from a perception of Jewish people as greedy (as Often used in stereotypes of Jews ), and this perception HAS probably Evolved in Europe During Medieval times WHERE a large portion of money lending Was operated by Jews .  [211]  Factors Contributing to this position included Jews That Were restricted from other professions,  [211]  while the Christian Church Declared for Their followers That Money lending constituted immoral ” usury “.  [212]

Current situation

Main article: Geography of anti-Semitism

A March 2008 report by the US State Department found that there was an increase in antisemitism across the world, and that both old and new expressions of antisemitism persist.  [213]  A 2012 report by the US Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor noted global increase in antisemitism, and found that Holocaust denial and opposition to Israeli policies was used to promote or blame antisemitism.  [214]

africa

See also: Antisemitism in Africa

algeria

Further information: History of the Jews in Algeria

Almost all Jews in Algeria left upon independence in 1962. Algeria’s 140,000 Jews HAD French citizenship since 1870 (Briefly revoked by Vichy France in 1940), Mainly And They Went to France , With Some going to Israel .

egypt

In Egypt , Dar al-Fadhilah published a translation of Henry Ford’s antisemitic treatise,  The International Jew  , complete with distinctly antisemitic imagery on the cover.  [215]

On May 5, 2001, after Shimon Peres visited Egypt , the Egyptian  al-Akhbar  said: “For the reason, Allah changed their shape and made them into monkeys and pigs. . ”  [216]

In July 2012, Egypt’s Al Nahar channel fooled actors into thinking they were an Israeli television show and filmed their reactions to being told an Israeli television show. In response, some of the actors launched on antisemitic rants or dialogue, and many became violent. Actress Mayer El Beblawi said that “Allah did not curse the worm and moth as much as he cursed the Jews” while actor Mahmoud Abdel Ghaffar launched into a violent rage and said, “You brought me someone who looks like a Jew … hate the Jews to death “after finding out it was a prank.  [217]  [218]

Libya

Further information: History of the Jews in Libya

Libya had once one of the oldest Jewish communities in the world, dating back to 300 BCE. Despite the repression of Jews in the late 1930s, as a result of the pro-Nazi Fascist Italian regime, Jews were third of the population of Libya till 1941. In 1942 the Nazi German troops occupied the Jewish quarter of Benghazi, plundering shops and deporting more than 2,000 Jews across the desert. Sent to work in labor camps, more than one-fifth of this group of Jews perished. A series of pogroms started in November 1945, while more than 140 Jews were killed inTripoli and most synagogues in the city looted. [219]  Upon Libya’s independence in 1951, most of the Jewish community emigrated from Libya. After the Suez Crisis in 1956, another series of pogroms forced all but about 100 Jews to flee. When Muammar al-Gaddafi came to power in 1969, all remaining Jewish property was confiscated and all debts to Jews cancelled.

Morocco

Further information: History of the Jews in Morocco

Jewish communities, in Islamic times Often living in ghettos Known As  Mellah  , Existed-have in Morocco for at least 2,000 years. Intermittent large scale massacres (such as that of 6,000 Jews in Fez in 1033, over 100,000 Jews in Fez and Marrakesh in 1146 and again in Marrakesh in 1232)  [152]  [220]  were accompanied by systematic discrimination through the years. In 1875, 20 Jews were killed by a mob in Demnat , Morocco; elsewhere in Morocco, Jews were attacked and killed in the streets in broad daylight.  [221]  While the pro-Nazi Vichy regime duringWorld War II passed discriminating laws against Jews, King Muhammad prevented deportation of Jews to death camps (still Jews with French, as opposed to Moroccan, citizenship, being directly subject to Vichy law, were still deported.) In 1948, approximately 265,000 Jews lived in Morocco. Between 5,000 and 8,000 live there now. In June 1948, soon after Israel was established in the midst of the first Arab-Israeli war, riots against Jews broke out in Oujda and Djerada , killing 44 Jews. In 1948-9, 18,000 Jews left the country for Israel. After this, Jewish emigration continued (to Israel and elsewhere), but slowed to a few thousand a year. Through the early fifties, ZionistIn the United States, the Jewish Judges of the United States (1955), Morocco, attained independence and emigration to Israel. [2] By 1967, only 60,000 Jews remained in Morocco. The Six-Day War in 1967 led to the rise of Arab-Jewish tensions worldwide, including Morocco. By 1971, the Jewish population was down to 35,000; however, most of this wave of emigration went to Europe and North America rather than Israel .

South Africa

Further information: History of the Jews in South Africa

Antisemitism has been present in the history of South Africa since Europeans first set foot ashore on the Cape Peninsula . In the years 1652-1795 Jews were not allowed to settle on the Cape. Year 1868 Act would sanction religious discrimination.  [222]  Antisemitism reached its apotheosis in the years leading up to World War II . Inspired by the rise of National Socialism in Germany the Ossewabrandwag (OB) – Whose membership Accounted for Almost 25% of the 1940 Afrikaner population – and the National Party faction  New Order  Would champion more programmatic solution to the ‘Jewish problem’.  [223]

tunisia

Further information: History of the Jews in Tunisia

Jews have lived in Tunisia for at least 2300 years. In the 13th century, Jews Were Expelled from Their homes in Kairouan and Were Ultimately restricted to ghettos Known As  hara  . Forced to wear distinctive clothing, several Jews earned high positions in the Tunisian government. Several prominent international traders were Tunisian Jews. From 1855 to 1864, Muhammad Bey relaxed dhimmi laws, but reinstated them in the face of anti-Jewish riots that continued at least until 1869. Tunisia, as the only Middle Eastern country under direct Nazicontrol during World War II, was also the site of racist antisemitic measures activities such as the yellow star, prison camps, deportations, and other persecution. In 1948, approximately 105,000 Jews lived in Tunisia . Only about 1,500 remain there today. Following Tunisia’s independence from France in 1956, a number of anti-Jewish policies led to emigration, of which half went to Israel and the other half to France. After attacks in 1967, Jewish emigration to Israel and France accelerated. There Were aussi attacks in 1982, 1985, and Most Recently in 2002 When a bomb in Djerba Took 21 lives (most of ’em German tourists) near the local synagogue, in a terrorist attack Claimed by Al Qaeda .

asia

Iran

See also: Holocaust denial in Iran

Mahmoud Ahmadinejad , president of Iran, has frequently been accused of denying the Holocaust.

In July, the winner of Iran’s first annual International Wall Street Downfall Cartoon Festival, co-sponsored by the semi-state-run Iranian media outlet Fars News , was an antisemitic cartoon depicting Jews praying before the New York Stock Exchange , which is made to look like the Western Wall . Other cartoons in the contest were antisemitic as well. The National Director of the Anti-Defamation League, Abraham Foxman, condemned the cartoon, stating that “Here’s the anti-Semitic notion of Jews and their love for money, the duck that Jews ‘control’ Wall Street, and a cynical perversion of the Western Wall, the holiest site in Judaism, “and” Once again Iran takes the prize for promoting anti-Semitism. ” [225]  [226]

japan

Main article: Antisemitism in Japan

The Japanese first learned about antisemitism in 1918, during the cooperation of the Imperial Japanese Army with the White movement in Siberia . White Army soldiers HAD beens Issued copies of  The Protocols of the Elders of Zion  , and “The  Protocols  continue to be used as evidence of Jewish conspiracies Even Though They Are Widely Acknowledged to be a forgery.  [227]  During World War II , Nazi Germany In the post-war period, extremist groupsand ideologues have promoted conspiracy theories.

lebanon

In 2004, Al-Manar , a media network affiliated with Hezbollah , aired a drama series,  The Diaspora  , which observes allege is based on historical antisemitic allegations. BBC correspondents who have watched the program says it quotes extensively from the  Protocols of the Elders of Zion  .  [228]

malaysia

See also: History of the Jews in Malaysia

Although Malaysia is presently has no substantial Jewish population, the country has reportedly become an example of a phenomenon called “anti-Semitism without Jews.”  [229]  [230]

In his treatise on Malay identity, “The Malay Dilemma,” which was published in 1970, to form Malaysian Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad wrote: “The Jews are not only hooked-nosed … but understand money instinctively …. Jewish stinginess and financial wizardry gained the economic control of Europe and provoked antisemitism which waxed and waned throughout Europe through the ages. ”  [231]

The Malay-language Utusan Malaysia daily stated in an editorial that Malaysians “can not allow anyone, especially the Jews, to interfere secretly in this country’s business … When the drums are pounded hard in the name of human rights, the pro-Jewish people will have their best opportunity to interfere in any Islamic country, “the newspaper said. “We might not realize that we will not be able to do this, but we will not be able to do it.” Prime Minister Najib Razak ‘s office issued a statement late Monday saying Utusan’ s claim did not reflect the views of the government.  [232]  [233]  [234]

Palestinian territories

See also: Tomorrow’s Pioneers , Palestinian Territory , Textbooks in Israeli-Palestinian Conflict
Haj Amin al-Husseini is a central figure of Palestinian nationalism in Mandatory Palestine. He took refuge and collaborated with Nazi Germany during World War II. He puts Adolf Hitlerin December 1941. Scholarly opinion is divided on the Mufti’s antisemitsm, with many scholars viewing him as an antisemitic staunch  [235]  while some deny the appropriateness of the term, or argues that he became antisemitic.  [236]

In March 2011, the Israeli government issued a paper claiming that “Anti-Israel and anti-Semitic messages are heard regularly in the government and private media and in the mosques and are taught in school books,” to the extent that they are “an integral part of the fabric of life inside the PA. ”  [237] In August 2012, Israeli Strategic Affairs Ministry director-general Yossi Kuperwasser stated that Palestinian incitement to anti-Semitism is “going on all the time” and that it is “worrying and disturbing.” At an institutional level, he said that the Palestinians would eventually be the sole sovereign of the Jordan River to the Mediterranean Sea; that Jews, especially those who live in Israel, were not really human but rather ‘scum of mankind’ and that all tools were legitimate in the struggle against Israel and the Jews. ”  [238]  In August 2014, the Hamas ‘ [239]

Pakistan

See also: History of the Jews in Pakistan and Antisemitism in Pakistan

The US State Department’s first Report on Anti-Semitism Global reported a strong feeling of anti-Semitism in Pakistan .  [240]  In Pakistan, a country without Jewish communities, antisemitic sentiment fanned by antisemitic articles in the press is widespread.  [241]

In Pakistan, Jews are often regarded as miserly.  [242]  After Israel’s independence in 1948, violent incidents occurred against Pakistan’s small Jewish community of about 2,000 Bene IsraelJews. The Magain Shalome Synagogue in Karachi has been attacked, as were individual Jews. The persecution of Jews in their exodus via India to Israel (see Pakistanis in Israel ), the UK, Canada and other countries. The Peshawar Jewish community ceased to exist  [243]  although a small community reportedly still exists in Karachi .

A substantial number of people in Pakistan believe that the September 11 attacks on the World Trade Center in New York were a secret Jewish conspiracy organized by Israel’s MOSSAD , allegedly to be the 7 July 2005 London bombings , allegedly perpetrated by Jews in order to discredit Muslims. Pakistani political commentator Zaid Hamid claimed that the Indian Jews perpetrated the 2008 Mumbai attacks .  [244]  [245]  Such allegations echo traditional antisemitic theories.  [246]  [247]  The Jewish religious movement of Chabad Lubavich Had a house job in Mumbai ,India was attacked in the 2008 Mumbai , Pakistan by Ajmal Kasab , Pakistani National.  [248]  [249]  Antisemitic intents were evident from the testimonies of Kasab following his arrest and trial.  [250]

Saudi Arabia

People with an Israeli passport or Israeli stamps in their passport are not allowed to visit Saudi Arabia.  [251]  Saudi textbooks vilify Jews, call Jews apes (and Christians swine); ask that students avoid and not befriend Jews; claim that Jews worship the devil; and encourages Muslims to engage in Jihad to vanquish Jews.  [252]  Saudi Arabian Government officials and state religious leaders often promote the idea that they are conspiring to take over the world; have proof of Their claims They publish and frequently cites  The Protocols of the Elders of Zion  as factual.  [253]  [254]

turkey

Main articles: Antisemitism in Turkey and History of the Jews in Turkey

In 2003, the Neve Shalom Synagogue was targeted for a bombing, killing 21 Turkish Muslims and 6 Jews.  [255]

In June 2011, the  Economist  suggests that “The best way for Turks to promote democracy would be to vote against the ruling party”. Not long after, the Turkish Prime Minister, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan , said that “The International media, as they are supported by Israel, would not be happy with the continuation of the AKP government”.  [256]  The  Hurriyet Daily News  quoted Erdoğan at the time as claiming “The Economist is part of an Israeli conspiracy that aims to topple the Turkish government”.  [257]  Moreover, during Erdogan’s tenure, Hitler’s  Mein Kampf  has once again become a best selling book in Turkey.  [256] Prime Minister Erdogan called antisemitism a “crime against humanity.” He also said that “they have a minority, they are our citizens.  [258]

Europe

Main articles: Anti- Semitism in Europe and New Antisemitism

According to a 2004 report from the Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs , antisemitism had greatly increased in Europe since 2000, with significant increases in verbal attacks against Jews and vandalism such as graffiti, fire bombings of Jewish schools, desecration of synagogues and cemeteries. Germany, France, Britain, and Russia are the countries with the highest rate of antisemitic incidents in Europe.  [190]  The Netherlands and Sweden also had high rates of anti-Semitic attacks since 2000.  [259]

Some claims that recent European antisemitic violence can actually be seen from the long running Arab-Israeli conflict since the majority of the perpetrators of the large Muslim immigrant communities in European cities . However, compared to France, the United Kingdom and much of the rest of Europe, in Germany, Arab and pro-Palestinian groups are involved in a small percentage of antisemitic incidents.  [190]  [260]  According To  The Stephen Roth Institute for the Study of Contemporary Antisemitism and Racism The most severe attacks on Jewish sites and physical attacks on Jews in Europe.  [261]

On January 1, 2006, Britain’s chief rabbi , Lord Jonathan Sacks , warned that what he called “tsunami of antisemitism” was spreading globally. In an interview with BBC Radio 4Sacks said: “A number of my rabbinical colleagues in Europe have been assaulted and attacked on the streets.We have had synagogues desecrated.We have had Jewish schools burnt to the ground.-People are attempting to silence and even ban Jewish societies on campuses on the grounds that Jews must support the state of Israel, so they should be banned, which is quite extraordinary … British Jews see themselves as British citizens. do not know what’s going to happen next to making some European Jewish communities uncomfortable. ”  [262]

Following an escalation in antisemitism in 2012, which included the deadly shooting of a child at a Jewish school in France, the European Jewish Congress asked for a more proactive response. EJC President Moshe Kantor Explained, “These Calls to Take Action on the Future of the United States. be subject to an earthquake and the authorities can not say that the writing was not on the wall. ” He added that European countries should take legislative action against incitement, As well as to equip the autorités with The Necessary tools to confront Any attempt to expand terrorist and violent activities contre Jewish communities in Europe.  [263]

austria

Main article: Antisemitism in contemporary Austria

la France

Main articles: Antisemitism in 21st-century France and History of the Jews in France

France is home to the continent’s largest Jewish community (about 600,000). Jewish leaders decry an intensifying antisemitism in France,  [264]  mainly among Muslims of Arab or African heritage, but also growing among Caribbeanislanders from French colonies.  [265]  Former Interior Minister Nicolas Sarkozy denounced the killing of Ilan Halimi on 13 February 2006 as an antisemitic crime.

Jewish philanthropist Baron Eric de Rothschild suggests that the extent of antisemitism in France has been exaggerated. In an interview with  The Jerusalem Post  he says that “the one thing you can say is that France is an anti-Semitic country.”  [266]

In March 2012, Mohammed Merah opened fire at a Jewish school in Toulouse, killing a teacher and three children. An 8-year-old girl was shot in the head at the blank range. President Nicolas Sarkozy said it was “obvious” it was an antisemitic attack  [267]  and that, “I want to say to the leaders of the Jewish community, how close we feel to them. ” The Israeli Prime Minister condemned the “despicable anti-Semitic” murders.  [268]  [269]  After a 32-hour battle and standoff with the police outside his house, and a French raid, Merah jumped off a balcony and was shot in the head and killed.  [270] Merah told police during the standoff that he wanted to keep on attacking, and he loved death the way the police loved life. He also claimed connections with al-Qaeda.  [271]  [272]  [273]

4 months later, in July 2012, a French Jewish teenager wearing a “distinctive religious symbol” was the victim of a violent antisemitic attack on a journey between Toulouse and Lyon. The teen was first verbally harassed and later beaten up by two assailants. Richard Prasquier from the French Jewish umbrella group, CRIF , called the attack “another development in the worrying trend of anti-semitism in our country.”  [274]

Another incident in July 2012 dealt with the vandalism of the synagogue of Noisy-le-Grand of the Seine-Saint-Denis district in Paris . The synagogue was vandalized three times in a ten-day period. Prayer books and shawls were thrown on the floor, windows were shattered, drawers were ransacked, and walls, tables, clocks, and floors were vandalized. The authorities were alerted to the incidents by the National Bureau of Vigilance Against Anti-Semitism (BNVCA), a French antisemitism watchdog group, which called for more measures to be taken to prevent future hate crimes. BNVCA President Sammy Ghozlan stated that, “Despite the measures taken, things persist, and I think that we need additional legislation, because the Jewish community is annoyed.” [275]

In August 2012, Abraham Cooper , the dean of the Simon Wiesenthal Center , puts French Interior Minister Manuel Valls and reported that anti-Semitic attacks against French Jews increased by 40% since Merah’s shooting spreein Toulouse . Cooper pressed Valls to take extra measures to secure the safety of French Jews, increasing the trend of lone-wolf terrorists on the Internet.  [276]

germany

Further information: History of the Jews in Germany

Wolfgang Schäuble , the Interior Minister of Germany in 2006, pointed out the official policy of Germany: “We will not tolerate any form of extremism, xenophobia or anti-Semitism.”  [277]  Although the number of extreme right-wing groups and organizations grew from 141 (2001)  [278]  to 182 (2006),  [279]  especially in the formerly communist East Germany,  [277]  Germany’s measures against right-wing groups and antisemitism are effective, despite having the highest rates of antisemitic acts in Europe. According to the annual reports of the Federal Office for the Protection of the ConstitutionThe total number of far-right extremists in Germany dropped during the last years from 49,700 (2001),  [278]  45,000 (2002),  [278]  41,500 (2003),  [278]  40,700 (2004),  [279]  39,000 ( 2005),  [279]  to 38,600 in 2006.  [279]  Germany provided several million euros to fund “nationwide programs aimed at fighting far-right extremeism, including teams of traveling consultants, and victims’ groups.”  [280]

In July 2012, two women assaulted Were in Germany, sprayed with tear gas, and has shown Were ” Hitler salute ,” Apparently Because of a Star of David necklace That They Wore.  [281]

In late August 2012, Berlin police investigated an attack on a 53-year-old rabbi and his 6-year-old daughter, allegedly by four Arab teens, after which the hospital was treated. The police classified the attack as hate crime.  Jüdische Allgemeine  reported that the rabbi was wearing a kippah and was approached by one of the teens, who asked the rabbi if he was Jewish. The teen then attacked the rabbi while yelling antisemitic comments, and threatened to kill the rabbi’s daughter. Berlin’s mayor condemned the attack, saying that “Berlin is an international city in which intolerance, xenophobia and anti-Semitism are not being tolerated.”  [282]

In October 2012, various historians, including Dr. Julius H. Schoeps, has prominent German-Jewish historian and a member of the German Interior Ministry’s anti-Semitism counter-insurgency commission, the majority of the Bundestag deputies with failing to understand antisemitism and the imperativeness of periodic legislative reports on German antisemitism. Schoeps cited various antisemitic statements by German parliament members as well. The report in question determined that 15% of Germans are antisemitic while over 20% espouse “latent anti-Semitism,” but the report has been criticized for downplaying the sharpness of antisemitism in Germany, as well as failing to examine anti-Israel media coverage in Germany.  [283]

Greece

Main article: Antisemitism in Greece

Antisemitism in Greece  manifests itself in religious, political and media discourse. The recent Greek government-debt crisis has facilitated the rise of far right groups in Greece, most notably the formerly obscure Golden Dawn . Jews have lived in Greece since antiquity, but the largest community of around 20,000 Sephardic Jews settled in Thessalonica after an invitation from the Ottoman Sultanin the 15th century. After Thessalonica was annexed to Greece in 1913, the Greek government recognized Judaism the status of a recognized and protected religion. Currently in Greece, Jewish communities representing the 5,000 Greek Jews are legal entities under public law. According to the ADL (Anti-Defamation League) report of 2015, the “ADL Global 100”, a report of the status of anti-Semitism in 100 countries around the world, 69% of the adult population in Greece harbor antisemitic attitudes and 85% think that “Jews have too much power in the business world”.  [284] In March 2015, a survey about the Greeks’ perceptions of the holocaust was published. It is reported that less than 60 percent of the respondents believe that holocaust teaching should be included in the curriculum.  [285]

hungary

Main article: Antisemitism in contemporary Hungary

In the 21st century, anti-Semitism in Hungary has evolved and received an institutional framework, while verbal and physical aggression against Jews has escalated, creating a great difference between its earlier manifestations in the 1990s and recent developments. One of the major representatives of this institutionalized anti-Semitic ideology is the popular Hungarian party Jobbik, which received 17 percent of the vote in the April 2010 national election. The far-right subculture, which ranges from nationalist shops to radical-nationalist and neo-Nazi festivals and events, plays a major role in the institutionalization of Hungarian antisemitism in the 21st century. The contemporary antisemitic rhetoric has been updated and expanded, but is still based on the old antisemitic notions. The traditional accusations and motives include such phrases as Jewish occupation, international Jewish conspiracy, Jewish responsibility for the Treaty of Trianon, Judeo-Bolshevism, as well as blood libels against Jews. Nevertheless, the past few years have seen the reemergence of the blood libel and an increase in Holocaust relativization and denial, while the monetary crisis has revived references to the Jewish banker class.  [286]

italy

Main article: Antisemitism in 21st-century Italy

The ongoing political conflict between Israel and Palestine has played an important role in the development and expression of antisemitism in the 21st century , and in Italy as well. The Second Intifada , which began in late September 2000, has set in motion unexpected mechanisms, the traditional anti-Jewish prejudices were mixed with politically based stereotypes.  [287]  In this belief system, Israeli Jews were charged with full responsibility for the fate of the peace process and with the conflict presented in the struggle between good (the Palestinians) and evil (the Israeli Jews).  [288]

Netherlands

Further information: History of the Jews in the Netherlands

The Netherlands has the second highest incidence of antisemitic incidents in the European Union. However, it is difficult to obtain exact figures because they are not specifically identified by police reports, and they do not necessarily include the words “Jew” or “Israel”. According to Center for Information and Documentation on Israel (CIDI), a pro-Israel lobby group in the Netherlands,  [289]  the number of antisemitic incidents reported in the whole of the Netherlands was 108 in 2008, 93 in 2009, and 124 in 2010. Some two thirds of this are acts of aggression. There are approximately 52 000 Dutch Jews .  [290] Selon the NRC Handelsblad newspaper, the number of antisemitic incidents in Amsterdam Was 14 in 2008 and 30 in 2009.  [291]  In 2010, Raphael Evers, an orthodox rabbi in Amsterdam , Told the Norwegian newspaper Aftenposten That Jews can be safe along No. in the city “We Jews do not have much experience in Israel,” he said.  [292]

According to the Anne Frank Foundation , antisemitism in the Netherlands in 2011 was roughly at the same level as in 2010.  [293]  Actual antisemitic incidents increased from 19 in 2010 to 30 in 2011. Verbal antisemitic incidents unclear from 1173 in 2010 to 1098 in 2011. This accounts for 75% -80% of all verbal incidents in the Netherlands. Antisemitism is more prevalent in the age group 23-27 years, which is a younger group than that of racist incidents in general.

norway

Main article: Antisemitism in Norway

In 2010, the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation after one year of research, revealed that antisemitism was common among some 8th, 9th, and 10th graders in Oslo’s schools. Teachers at schools with large numbers of Muslimsrevealed that Muslim students often “praise or admire Adolf Hitler for his killing of Jews “, that “Jew-hate is legitimate within vast groups of Muslim students” and that “Muslims laugh or command [teachers] to stop when trying to educate about the Holocaust “. Additionally, “while some students might be protesting when expressing support for terrorism ,” said the Quran.That You `shall kill Jews, all true Muslims haste Jews.” Most of These students Were Said to be born and raised in Norway. One Jewish father aussi Stated That His child HAD beens taken by a Muslim mob after school (though the child managed to escape), reportedly “to be taken to the forest and hung because he was a Jew”.  [294]  [295]

Norwegian Education Minister Kristin Halvorsen referred to the antisemitism reported in this study as being “completely unacceptable.” The head of a local Islamic council joined Jewish leaders and Halvorsen in denouncing such antisemitism.  [296]

In October 2012, the Organization for Security and Co-Operation in Europe issued a report against antisemitism in Norway, criticizing Norway for an increase in antisemitism in the country and blaming Norwegian officials for failing to address antisemitism. ”  [297]

poland

The University of Warsaw ‘s study in 2016 found that 37% of surveyed poles expressed negative attitudes towards Jews (up from 32% in 2015); 56% said they would not accept a Jew in their family (up from 46%); and 32% would not want Jewish neighbors (up from 27%).  [298]

In November 2015, following Antoni Macierewicz ‘s ( Law and Justice party) designation as Minister of National Defense, he alleged allegations of antisemitism and protests by the Anti Defamation League .  [299]  [300]  [301]

russia

Main article: Antisemitism in Russia

Antisemitism in Russia refers to acts of hostility against Jews in Russia and the promotion of antisemitic views in the country since the end of the Soviet Union.

spain

Main articles: Antisemitism in Spain and Anti-Semitism in International Brigades

Sweden

Main article: Antisemitism in Sweden

After Germany and Austria, Sweden has the highest rate of antisemitic incidents in Europe, though the Netherlands has reported a higher rate of antisemitism in some years.  [259]  A government study in 2006 estimated that 15% of Swedes agree with the statement: “The Jews have too much influence in the world today”.  [302]  5% of the total adult population and 39% of adult Muslims “harbor systematic antisemitic views”.  [302]  The prime minister Göran Perssondescribed these results as “surprising and terrifying”. However, the rabbi of Stockholm’s Orthodox Jewish community, Meir Horden, said that “It’s not true that Swedes are anti-Semitic.” Some of them are hostile to Israel because they support the weak side, which they perceive the Palestinians to be. . ”  [303]

In 2009, a synagogue that served the Jewish community in Malmö was set ablaze. Jewish cemeteries were repeatedly desecrated, worshippers were abused while returning home from prayer, and masked men mockingly chanted “Hitler” in the streets. As a result of security concerns, Malmö’s synagogue has guards and rocket-proof glass in the windows, and the Jewish kindergarten can only be reached through thick steel security doors.  [304]

In early 2010, the Swedish publication  The Local  published a series of articles on growing antisemitism in Malmö, Sweden .  [305]  In 2009, the Malmö police received reports of 79 antisemitic incidents, which was twice the number of the previous year (2008).  [306]  Fredrik Sieradzki, spokesperson for the Malmö Jewish community, estimated that the already small Jewish population is shrinking by 5% a year. “Malmö is a place to move away from,” he said, citing anti-Semitism as the primary reason.  [307]  In March 2010, Fredrik Sieradzk told  Die Presse , an Austrian Internet publication, that Jews are being “harassed and physically attacked” by “people from the Middle East,” “he added that only a small number of Malmö’s 40,000 Muslims” exhibit hatred of Jews. ”  [308]  In October 2010,  The Forward  reported on the current state of the Jews and the level of antisemitism in Sweden. Henrik Bachner, a writer and professor of history at the University of Lund, claimed that the members of the Swedish Parliament have attended anti-Israel rallies where the Israeli flag was burned while the flags of Hamas and Hezbollah were waved, and the rhetoric was often antisemitic. -not just anti-Israel.  [309] Judith Popinski, an 86-year-old Holocaust survivor, said that she is not far away.  [307]  In December 2010, the Jewish human rights organization Simon Wiesenthal Center issued a travel advisory concerning Sweden, advising Jews to express “extreme caution” when visiting the southern part of the country. citizens in the city of Malmö .  [310]  Ilmar Reepalu, the mayor of Malmö for over 15 years, Malmö’s Jewish community to leave the city in Malmö, May 30 disappear soon. Criticism of Reputation in the History of Malaria, Volume 20, Number 1, Volume 2, Number 1, 3rd Edition  [304]  In an interview with  the Sunday Telegraph  in February 2010, Reepalu said, “There are not any attacks on Jewish people, and if Jews from the city want to move to Israel that is not matter for Malmö,” which again concerns about Reepalu.  [311]

Ukraine

Oleh Tyahnybok, the leader of the far-right Svoboda party, whose members hold senior positions in Ukraine’s government, urged his party to fight “the Moscow-Jewish mafia ruling Ukraine.” [312]  The  Algemeiner Journal  reported: “Svoboda supporters include among their heroes leaders of pro-Nazi World War II organizations known for their atrocities against Jews and Poles, such as the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN), the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA), and the 14th Waffen-SS Galicia Division.” [313]

According to The Simon Wiesenthal Center (in January 2011) “Ukraine has, to the best of our knowledge, never conducted a single investigation of a local Nazi war criminal, let alone prosecuted a Holocaust perpetrator.” [314]

According to  Der Spiegel , Dmytro Yarosh, leader of the far-right Right Sector, wrote: “I wonder how it came to pass that most of the billionaires in Ukraine are Jews?” [315]  Late February 2014 Yarosh pledged during a meeting with Israel’s ambassador in Kiev to fight all forms of racism. [316]  Right Sector’s leader for West Ukraine, Oleksandr Muzychko, has talked about fighting “communists, Jews and Russians for as long as blood flows in my veins.” [317]  Muzychko was shot dead on 24 March 2014. [318]  An official inquiry concluded he had shot himself in the heart at the end of a chase with the Ukrainian police. [318]

In April 2014, Donetsk Chief Rabbi Pinchas Vishedski said that “Anti-Semitic incidents in the Russian-speaking east were rare, unlike in Kiev and western Ukraine.” [319]  In an April 2014 article about anti-Jewish violence in Ukraine in  Haaretz  no incidents outside this “Russian-speaking east” were mentioned. [320]

According to the Israel’s Ambassador to Ukraine, the antisemitism occurs here much less frequently than in other European countries, and has more a hooligan’s nature rather than a system. [321]

United Kingdom

Main articles: Antisemitism in the United Kingdom and British Jews

In 2017 a Institute for Jewish Policy Research survey found that the levels of anti-Semitism in Great Britain were among the lowest in the world, with 2.4% expressing multiple anti-Semitic attitudes, and about 70% having a favourable opinion of Jews. However, only 17% had a favourable opinion of Israel, with 33% holding an unfavourable view. [322] [323]

In 2017, a report by the Campaign Against Antisemitism (CAA) found that the previous year, 2016, had been the worst on record for antisemitic hate crime in the UK. [324]  Prior to that, 2015 had been the worst year on record, and 2014 was the worst year on record before that. The report found that in 2016, antisemitic crime rose by 15% compared to 2015, or 45% compared to 2014. It also found that 1 in 10 antisemitic crimes was violent. Despite rising levels of antisemitic crime, the report said there had been a decrease in the charging of antisemitic crime. In the report’s foreword, the CAA’s Chairman wrote: “Britain has the political will to fight antisemitism and strong laws with which to do it, but those responsible for tackling the rapidly growing racist targeting of British Jews are failing to enforce the law. There is a very real danger of Jewish citizens emigrating, as has happened elsewhere in Europe unless there is radical change.” [324]

Every years since 2015, the CAA has commissioned polling by YouGov concerning the attitude of the British public toward British Jews. In 2017, their polling found that 36% of British adults believed at least one of the antisemitic statements pollsters had shown them to be true, a reduction from 39% in 2016 and 45% in 2015. Additionally, the polling revealed widespread fear amongst British Jews, with almost 1 in 3 saying that they had considered emigrating in the last two years due to antisemitism, and 37% saying that they concealed their Judaism in publlic. The report gave various indications as to the cause of the fears, with British Jews identifying Islamist antisemitism, far-left antisemitism and far-right antisemitism as their main concerns, in that order. 78% of British Jews saying that they had witnessed antisemitism disguised as a political comment about Israel, 76% thoughts that political developments were contributing antisemitism, and 52% felt that the Crown Prosecution Service was not doing enough. [325] [326]

In 2016, the Home Affairs Select Committee held an inquiry into the rise of antisemitism in the UK. [327]  The inquiry called David Cameron, Tim Farron, Angus Robertson, [328]  Jeremy Corbyn, [329]  Ken Livingstone [330]  and others to give evidence. In 2005, a group of British Members of Parliament set up an inquiry into antisemitism, which published its findings in 2006. Its report stated that “until recently, the prevailing opinion both within the Jewish community and beyond [had been] that antisemitism had receded to the point that it existed only on the margins of society.” It found a reversal of this progress since 2000. The inquiry was reconstituted following a surge in antisemitic incidents in Britain during the summer of 2014, and the new inquiry published its report in 2015, making recommendations for reducing antisemitism. [331]

North America

Canada

Main article: Antisemitism in Canada

Although antisemitism in Canada is less prevalent than in many other countries, there have been recent incidents. For example, a 2004 study identified 24 incidents of antisemitism between 14 March and 14 July 2004 in Newfoundland, Montreal, Quebec City, Ottawa, the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), and some smaller Ontario communities. The incidents included vandalism and other attacks on four synagogues, six cemeteries, four schools, and a number of businesses and private residences. [332]

United States

Main article: Antisemitism in the United States
See also: History of antisemitism in the United States

In November 2005, the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights examined antisemitism on college campuses. It reported that “incidents of threatened bodily injury, physical intimidation or property damage are now rare”, but antisemitism still occurs on many campuses and is a “serious problem.” The Commission recommended that the U.S. Department of Education’s Office for Civil Rights protect college students from antisemitism through vigorous enforcement of  Title VI  of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and further recommended that Congress clarify that Title VI applies to discrimination against Jewish students. [333]

On September 19, 2006, Yale University founded the Yale Initiative for the Interdisciplinary Study of Anti-Semitism (YIISA), the first North American university-based center for the study of the subject, as part of its Institution for Social and Policy Studies. Director Charles Small of the Center cited in the increase in antisemitism worldwide in recent years as a “need to understand the current manifestation of this disease”.  [334]  In June 2011, Yale voted to close this initiative. After carrying out a routine review, the faculty review committee said that the initiative had not met its research and teaching standards. Donald Green, then head of Yale’s Institution for Social and Political Studies, the body under which aegis the antisemitism initiative was run, said that it had not been many years ago. As with other programs that had been in a similar situation, the initiative had been canceled.  [335]  [336]  This decision has-been Criticized by figures Such As formed US Commission on Civil Rights Staff Director Kenneth L. Marcus , who is now the director of the Initiative to Combat Anti-Semitism and Anti-Israelism in America’s Educational Systems at the Institute for Jewish and Community Research, and Deborah Lipstadt , who described the decision as “weird” and “strange.”  [337]  Antony Lerman has supported Yale’s decision, describing the YIISA as a political initiative that has been devoted to the promotion of Israel rather than to serious research on anti-Semitism.  [338]

A 2007 survey by the Anti-Defamation League (ADL) concluded that 15% of Americans hold antisemitic views, which was in-line with the average of the previous ten years, but declined from the 29% of the early sixties. The survey concluded that education is a strong predictor, “with most educated Americans being remarkably free of prejudicial views.” The belief that Jews have too much power has been considered a common antisemitic view by the ADL. Other views indicating anti-Semitism, according to the survey, include the view that Jews are more loyal to Israel than America, and that they are responsible for the death of Jesus of Nazareth. The survey found that anti-Semitic Americans are likely to be intolerant generally, eg regarding immigration and free-speech. The 2007 survey also found that 29% of foreign-born Hispanics and 32% of African-Americans hold strong antisemitic beliefs, three times more than the 10% for whites.  [339]

A 2009 study published in  Boston Review  found that nearly 25% of non-Jewish Americans blamed Jews for the financial crisis of 2008-2009 , with a higher percentage among Democrats than Republicans. 32% of Democrats blamed Jews for the financial crisis, versus 18% for Republicans.  [340]  [341]

In August 2012, the California state assembly approved a non-binding resolution that “encourages university leaders to combat a wide array of anti-Jewish and anti-Israel actions,” although the resolution “is purely symbolic and does not carry policy implications.” [342]

In April 2017,  Politico Magazine  published an article purporting to show links between US President Donald Trump , Russian President Vladimir Putin and the Jewish outreach organization Chabad-Lubavitch . The article was widely condemned, with the head of the Anti-Defamation League Jonathan Greenblatt saying that it “evokes age-old myths about Jews”.  [343]  [344]

South America

Venezuela

In a 2009 news story, Michael Rowan and Douglas E. Schoen wrote, “In an infamous Christmas Eve speech several years ago, Chávez said the Jews killed Christ and have been gobbling up wealth and causing poverty and injustice worldwide ever since.”  [345]  Hugo Chávez stated that “[t] he world is for all, then, but it happens that a minority, the descendants of the same ones that crucified Christ, the descendants of the same ones that kicked Bolívar out of here and also crucified him in their own way in Santa Marta, in Colombia.  [346]

In February 2012, opposition candidate for the 2012 Venezuelan presidential election Henrique Capriles was subject to what foreign journalists characterized  [347]  attacks by state-run media sources.  [348]  [349]  The  Wall Street Journal  said that Capriles “was vilified in a campaign in Venezuela’s state-run media, which insinuated he was, among other things, to a homosexual and a Zionist agent.”  [347]  A 13 February 2012 opinion article in the state-owned Radio Nacional de Venezuela , titled “The Enemy is Zionism”  [350] attacked This Capriles’ Jewish ancestry and linked with national Jewish groups _him_ Because of a meeting He Had Held with local Jewish leaders,  [347]  [348]  [351]  Saying, “This is our enemy, the Zionism That Represents Capriles today … Zionism, along with capitalism, are responsible for 90% of the world’s poverty and imperialist wars. ”  [347]

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