Nazi boycott of Jewish businesses

The Nazi boycott of Jewish businesses in Germany was first introduced on April 1, 1933, and was claimed to be a defensive reaction to the Jewish boycott of German goods , [1] [3]which had been initiated but quickly abandoned in March 1933. [3] ] It was Largely unsuccessful, as the German population continued to use Jewish businesses, the goal Revealed intent of the Nazis to Undermine the viability of Jews in Germany. [4]

It was an early governmental action against the Jews of Germany by the new National Socialist Government, which culminated in the ” Final Solution “. It was a state-managed campaign of ever-increasing harassment, arrests, systematic pillaging , forced transfer of ownership to Nazi Party activists (managed by the Chamber of Commerce ), and the ultimate murder of “Jews”. In Berlin alone, there were 50,000 Jewish-owned businesses. [5]

Earlier boycotts

See also: Antisemitism and Antisemitic boycotts

Antisemitism in Germany Grew increasingly pervasive after- the First World War and Was MOST prevalent in the universities . By 1921, the German student union Deutscher Hochschulring barred Jews from membership. Since the bar was racial, it included [6] The bar was challenged by the government, leading to a referendum in which 76% of the student members voted for exclusion. [6]

At the same time, Nazi newspapers began agitating for a boycott of Jewish businesses, and anti-Jewish boycotts became a regular feature of 1920s regional German politics with rights-wing German parties becoming closed to Jews. [7]

From 1931-32, SA Brownshirt Thugs We Reached Out of the World by Jewish Shop Owners. During the Christmas holiday season of 1932, the central office of the Nazi party organized a nationwide boycott. In addition, German businesses, particularly large organizations like banks, insurance companies, and industrial firms such as Siemens , Germany. [7] Many hotels, restaurants and cafes banned Borkum banned Jews anywhere on the island. Such behavior was common in pre-war Europe; [8] [9] however in Germany, it reached new heights.

Anti-Nazi boycott of 1933

Main article: Anti-Nazi boycott of 1933
Nameplate of Dr. Werner Liebenthal, notary and advocate . Martin Luther Str, Schöneberg , Berlin . In 1933, following the Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service by the Nazis, who boycotted Jewish-owned offices.

The Anti-Nazi Boycott of 1933 Was a boycott of Nazi products by foreign critics of the Nazi Party in response to antisemitism in Nazi Germany Following The rise of Adolf Hitler , Commencing With His appointment as Chancellor of Germany on January 30, 1933. Those in the United States , the United Kingdom and other places world who opposed Nazi Germany to end the regime’s anti-Jewish practices.

National boycott

Members of the SA boycotting Jews, April 1, 1933

In March 1933, the Nazis won a large number of seats in the German parliament, the Reichstag . Following this victory, and partly in response to the anti-Nazi boycott of 1933 , [10] There was widespread violence and hooliganism directed at Jewish businesses and individuals. [6] Jewish lawyers and judges have been arrested. In some cases the SA created improvised concentration camps for prominent Jewish anti-Nazis. [11]

On April 1, 1933, the Nazis carried out their first nationwide, planned action against Jews: a boycott targeting Jewish businesses and professionals, in response to the Jewish boycott of German goods .

On the day of the boycott, the SA stands menacingly in front of Jewish-owned department stores and retail establishments, and the offices of professionals such as doctors and lawyers. The Star of David was painted in black and white, with accompanying antisemitic slogans. Signs were posted saying “Do not Buy from Jews!” ( Kauf nicht bei Juden! ), “The Jews Are Our Misfortune!” ( Die Juden und unglück! ) And “Go to Palestine!” ( Geh nach Palästina! ). Throughout Germany acts of violence against individual Jews and Jewish property occurred.

The boycott was ignored by many individuals Germans who continued to shop in Jewish-owned stores during the day. [12] [1]

International impact

The Nazi boycott inspired similar boycotts in other countries. In Poland the Endeks (founded by Roman Dmowski ) organized boycotts of Jewish businesses across the country. [13]

In Quebec, French-Canadian nationalists organized boycotts of Jews in the 1930s. [14]

In the United States, Father Charles Coughlin (a Canadian immigrant) is a child of Jewish businesses. Coughlin’s radio show attracted tens of millions of listeners and supporters “Buy Christian” campaigns and attacked Jews. [15] Also, Ivy League Universities restricted the numbers of Jews allowed admission. [16] [17]

In Austria, an organization called the Antisemitenbund had campaigned against Jewish civil rights since 1919. The organization took its inspiration from Karl Lueger , the legendary 19th-century anti-Semitic mayor of Vienna, who inspired Hitler and had also campaigned for a boycott of Jewish businesses. Austrian campaigns tended to escalate around Christmas and became effective from 1932. As in Germany, Nazi picketed Jewish stores in an attempt to prevent shoppers from using them. [18]

In Hungary, the government passed laws limiting Jewish economic activity from 1938 onwards. Agitation for boycotts back to the mid-nineteenth century [19]

Subsequent events

The national boycott operation marked the beginning of a nationwide campaign by the Nazi party against the entire German Jewish population.

A week later, on April 7, 1933, the Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service was passed, which restricted employment in the civil service to ” Aryans “. This meant that Jews could not serve as teachers , professors , judges , or other government positions. Most Jewish government workers, including teachers in public schools and universities, were fired, while doctors followed closely behind. However, the Jews who were war veterans were excluded from dismissal or discrimination (about 35,000 German Jews died in the First World War). [20] In 1935, the Nazis passed the Nuremberg Laws, stripping all of their German citizenship, regardless of where they were born. [11]Also, a Jewish quota of 1% was introduced for the number allowed to wait for universities. In the amendment published on April 11 of Part 3 of the law, which stated that all non-Aryans were to be removed from the civil service, clarification was given: ” A person is to be considered non-Aryan if he is descended from no -Aryan, and especially from Jewish parents or grandparents.It is sufficient if one parent or grandparent is non-Aryan.It is to be assumed in particular where one parent or grandparent was of the Jewish religion . [21]

“Jewish” books Were Publicly burnt in elaborate ceremonies, and laws That Clearly defined Who Was Was not Jewish gold Were Passed. Jewish-owned businesses were forced to sell to (non-Jewish) Germans .

After the Invasion of Poland in 1939, the German Nazi occupation forced Jews into ghettos and completely banned them from public life. But this was not enough for Nazi Germans: by 1940, they had turned to genocide , resulting in what is known as The Holocaust .

References

  1. ^ Jump up to:b “Boycott of Jewish Businesses” . Holocaust Encyclopedia . USHMM .
  2. Jump up^ The History Place (2 July 2016),”Triumph of Hitler: Nazi Boycott Jewish Shops”
  3. Jump up^ Berel Lang (2009). Philosophical Witnessing: The Holocaust as Presence . UPNE. pp. 131-. ISBN  978-1-58465-741-5 .
  4. Jump up^ Pauley, Bruce F (Mar 1 1998), “From Prejudice to Persecution: A History of Austrian Anti-Semitism,” University of North Carolina Press, pp 200-203
  5. Jump up^ Kreutzmüller, Christoph (2012). Final Sale – The Destruction of Jewish Owned Businesses in Nazi Berlin 1930-1945 . Metropol-Verlag. ISBN  978-3-86331-080-6 .
  6. ^ Jump up to:c Rubenstein, Richard L .; Roth, John K. (2003). “5. Rational Antisemitism”. Approaches to Auschwitz: The Holocaust and its legacy(2nd ed.). Westminster John Knox Press. pp. 123-124. ISBN  978-0664223533 .
  7. ^ Jump up to:b Longerich, Peter (2010). “1: Antisemitism in the Weimar Republic”. Holocaust: The Nazi Persecution and Murder of the Jews (1st ed.). USA: Oxford University Press. ISBN  978-0192804365 .
  8. Jump up^ Karpf, Anne (8 June 2002),”We’ve been here before”,The Guardian
  9. Jump up^ Encyclopedia.com (28 Sept 2008),”Pogroms”
  10. Jump up^ The Anti-Nazi Boycott of 1933,American Jewish Historical Society. Accessed January 22, 2009.
  11. ^ Jump up to:b Michael Burleigh; Wolfgang Wippermann (1991). “4: The Persecution of the Jews”. The Racial State: Germany, 1933-1945 . Cambridge University Press. p. 77. ISBN  978-0-521-39802-2 .
  12. Jump up^ “Boycott of Jewish Businesses” . Jewish Virtual Library .
  13. Jump up^ Cang, Joel (1939). “The Opposition Parties in Poland and Their Attitude towards the Jews and the Jewish Question”. Jewish Social Studies . 1 (2): 241-256.
  14. Jump up^ Abella, Irving; Bialystok, Franklin (1996). “Canada: Before the Holocaust”. In Wyman, David S .; Rosenzveig, Charles H. The World Reacts to the Holocaust . The Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 751-753. ISBN  978-0801849695 .
  15. Jump up^ “Charles E. Coughlin” . Holocaust Encyclopedia . USHMM .
  16. Jump up^ Horowitz, Daniel (1998). Betty Friedan and the Making of The Mystic Feminine: The American Left . p. 25.
  17. Jump up^ Karabel, Jerome (2005). The Chosen: The Hidden History of Admission and Exclusion at Harvard, Yale, and Princeton . Houghton Mifflin.
  18. Jump up^ Bruce F. Pauley, “From Prejudice to Persecution: A History of Austrian Anti-Semitism,” (North Carolina, 1992), page 201.
  19. Jump up^ Randolph L. Braham,”The Christian Churches of Hungary and the Holocaust,”Yad Vashem (Shoah Resource Center), pp. 1-2.
  20. Jump up^ “Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service, April 7, 1933” . www1.yadvashem.org . Retrieved 2015-10-27 .
  21. Jump up^ “Documents on the Holocaust: Selected Sources on the Destruction of the Jews of Germany and Austria, Poland, and the Soviet Union,” ed.byArad, Yitzhak; Gutman, Yisrael; Margaliot, Abraham (Jerusalem: Yad Vashem, 1987), p.39-42.

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