Jewish quota



Jewish quota  was a racial quota limiting the number of Jews in various establishments to a certain percentage. In particular, in the 19th and 20th centuries, some countries had Jewish quotas in higher education .

Jewish educational quotas could be statewide or only adopted in certain institutions, often unofficially. The limitation of the total population of Jewish students in the population of the United States would be greater than that of their population in general. In some establishments, the Jewish quota is a limitation on growth rather than a fixed level of participation to be achieved.

According to historian David Oshinsky , writing about Jonas Salk , “Most of the medical schools ( Cornell , Columbia , Pennsylvania , and Yale ) had rigid quotas in. In 1935 Yale accepted 76 applicants from a pool of 501. About 200 of those candidates were Jewish and only five got in. ” He notes that Dean Milton Winternitz’s instructions were remarkably precise: “Never admit more than five Jews, take only two Italian Catholics, and take no blacks at all.”  [1]  As a result, Oshinsky added, ” Jonah Salk and hundreds like him” enrolled in New York University instead.  [2] Physicist and Nobel laureate Richard P. Feynman was turned away from Columbia College in the 1930s and went to MIT instead.

Jews who wanted an education used various ways to overcome this discrimination: bribing the authorities, changing their religion, or traveling to countries without such limitations. In Hungary, for example, 5,000 Jewish youngsters (including Edward Teller ) left the country after the introduction of  numerus clausus  .

Countries legislating limitations on the admission of Jewish students

  • Canada : Certain universities, notably McGill University , University of Montreal and the University of Toronto , had longstanding quotas on the number of Jews admitted to the respective universities. McGill University’s strict quota was the longest, being officially adopted in 1920 up until the late 1960s.  [3]  [4]  [5]
  • Germany : On April 25, 1933, the Nazi government introduced a 1.5 percent quota for new admissions of German non- Aryans -a essentially of German Jews-a core issue of Aryan and non-Aryan (Aryan and non-Aryan) students admitted to high schools (  höhere Schulen  ) and universities. In addition, high schools and universities are deemed to be required for the purpose of the profession; doing so, they had to reach a maximum of 5 per cent of German non-Aryan students. The law was supposedly enacted to avoid overcrowding schools and universities,  [6] which referred to German at the time that large numbers of students would decrease the quality of higher education. At the beginning of 1933, about 0.76 percent of the German population was Jewish, but more than 3.6 percent of German university students were Jewish, this number having steadily declined from 9 percent in the 1880s.  [7]  After 30 July 1939, Jews were no longer allowed to attend German public schools at all, and the priority quota was eliminated by a non-public regulation in January 1940.  [8]  p. 193
Apart from their strong and predominant anti-Semitic agenda, the law and its enumeration have been generally limited, ie including “non-Aryans” (Jews), as the name of the law implied. Starting 1934, a regulation limited to the overall numbers of students admitted to German universities, and a special quota was introduced to reduce women’s admissions to a maximum of 10 percent. Although the limits were not fully enforced-women’s quota remained higher than 10 percent because they were more likely to be admitted than men. qualification.  [9]  S. 80ff. After two semesters, the admission limits have been revoked, however, leaving in place the non-Aryan regulations.  [8]  p. 178
For additional information in German, see the article at the German Wikipedia
  • Hungary : a  Numerus Clausus  Act was introduced in 1920, under the government of Pál Teleki . It was said that the ethnic rate of students should meet the ethnic rate of population. Limitations were relaxed in 1928. Racial criteria in admitting new students were removed by social criteria. Five categories were set up: civilian servants, war veterans and army officers, small landowners and craftsmen, industrialists, and the merchant classes.  [10]
  • Imperial Russia and the Soviet Union :  Numerus Clausus  Was Enacted in 1887 Stating que la share of Jewish students shoulds be no more than 10 percent in cities Where Jews Were allowed to live , 5 percent in other cities, and only 3 percent in Moscow and St Petersburg . These limitations were removed after the revolution of 1917, but de facto discrimination of Jewish candidates remained in many institutions of higher education in the Soviet Union until Perestroika .  [11]  [12]  [13]  [14]
  • India : Muslims , Sikhs and Christians , who helped them in their education and other assistance from government.  quote needed  ]
  • Latvia : In 1934, under Kārlis Ulmanis ‘ authoritarian regime.  [15]
  • Poland : see Numerus clausus in Poland and Ghetto benches .
  • Romania  Numerus Clausus  Was not Introduced by law  [16]  goal It was adopté by students in the universities in Cluj, Bucharest, Iasi and Cernauti.
  • United States : Certain Private Universities, most notably, Harvard , introduced policies which have a quota on the number of Jews admitted to the university. See also Numerus clausus in the United States .
  • Yugoslavia : In 1940, the Yugoslav government enacted the Decree on the Enrollment of Persons of Jewish Descent at the University, Secondary School, Teacher Training College and Other Vocational Schools which limited the proportion of Jewish students to the proportion of Jews in the total population.  [17]

See also

  • Asian quota
  • Disabilities (Jewish)
  • Jewish intelligence

References

  1. Jump up^   Gerard N. Burrow (2008).  A History of Yale School of Medicine: Passing Torches to Others  . Yale University Press. p. 107ff.
  2. Jump up^  Oshinsky, David M. Polio: An American Story , Oxford Univ. Press (2006)
  3. Jump up^  Gerald Tulchinsky, Canada’s Jews: A People’s Journey , (Toronto: University of Toronto Press), 2008, p. 132-133, 319-321.
  4. Jump up^  Tulchinsky, Canada’s Jews , p. 133.
  5. Jump up^  Tulchinsky, Canada’s Jews , p. 410.
  6. Jump up^  Gesetz gegen die Überfüllung deutscher Schulen und Hochschulen (RGBl 1933 I, S. 225)(original German text of the Law against the Overcrowding of German Schools and Universities , introduced in 1933)Erste Verordnung zur Durchführung des Gesetzes gegen die Überfüllung deutscher Schulen und Hochschulen (RGBl 1933 I, S. 226)(original German text of the First Regulation for the Implementation of the Law of the Overcrowding of German Schools and Universities , introduced in 1933)
  7. Jump up^  Claudia Huerkamp (1993). Jdische Akademikerinnen in Deutschland 1900-1938 (= Jewish academics in Germany 1900-1938).  Geschichte und Gesellschaft, 19. Jg. (Heft 3),  Rassenpolitik und Geschlechterpolitik im Nationalsozialismus, pp. 311-331. Publisher: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht (GmbH & Co. KG)
  8. ^ Jump up to: b  A. G. v. Olenhusen: Die “nichtarischen” Studenten an den deutschen Hochschulen (= The non-Aryan students at German universities). Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte, 14 (1966),  pp. 175-206. (German)
  9. Jump up^  Claudia Huerkamp (1996).  Bildungsbürgerinnen. Frauen im Studium und akademischen Berufen 1900-1945.  (Reihe:  Bürgertum, Band 10  )ISBN 3-525-35675-7
  10. Jump up^  See:Numerus Clausus
  11. Jump up^  Mikhail Shifman , ed. (2005).  You Failed Your Math Test, Comrade Einstein: Adventures and Misadventures of Young Mathematicians Gold Test Your Skills in Almost Recreational Mathematics  . World Scientific.
  12. Jump up^  Edward Frenkel (October 2012). “The Fifth Problem: Math & Anti-Semitism in the Soviet Union” .  The New Criterion  .
  13. Jump up^  Dominic Lawson (October 11, 2011). “More migrants please, especially the clever ones” .  The Independent  . London.
  14. Jump up^  Andre Geim (2010). “Biographical” . Nobelprize.org.
  15. Jump up^  “Minorities aided in new Polish edict” (PDF) .  Jewish Daily Bulletin  . New York. February 10, 1935.
  16. Jump up^  “Encyclopaedia Judaica: Numerus clausus, vol 12, col 1267-1268” .
  17. Jump up^  Goldstein, Ivo . “The Jews in Yugoslavia 1918-1941: Antisemitism and the Struggle for Equality” (PDF) . pp. 10-11 . Retrieved 6 January 2016 .

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