Ideology of Hezbollah

The ideology of Hezbollah has been summed up as Shiite radicalism . [1] [2] [3] Hezbollah was formed with the help of the Ayatollah Khomeini ‘s followers in the early 1980s in order to spread Islamic revolution [4] and follows a separate version of Islamic Shi’a ideology ( Valiyat al -faqih Gold Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists) developed by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, leader of the “Islamic Revolution” in Iran . [5] [6]

Manifesto

Hezbollah declared its existence on 16 February 1985 in “The Hizballah Program”. This document [7] was read by spokesman Sheikh Ibrahim al-Amin at the al-Ouzai Mosque in West Beirut and simultaneously published in al-Safir as “The Hizballah Program, an open letter to all the Oppressed in Lebanon and the World,” and a separate pamphlet that was first published in full in English in 1987. [8]

According to “The Hizballah Program” the principles of its ideology are: [9]

  • To expel Americans, the French and their allies definitely from Lebanon, putting an end to any colonialist entity on our land.
  • To submit the phalanxes to justice and justice for the crimes they have perpetrated against Muslims and Christians.
  • To allow them to make the most of their freedom of choice. We call on all of them to pick the option of Islamic government which, alone, is capable of guaranteeing justice and liberty for all. Only an Islamic regime can stop any future attempts of imperialistic infiltration onto our country.

It listed the Ayatollah Khomeini as the leader whose “orders we obey”; called on Christians to “open your hearts to our call” and “embrace Islam” and noted that “Allah has … made it intolerable for Muslims to participate in … a regime which is not predicated upon … the Sharia ” ; explained that Israel is “the vanguard of the United States in our Islamic world”. [9]

More broadly, current leader Sheikh Nasserallah has described Hizb’Allah’s ideology as having “two main axis: firstly, a belief in the rule by the just jurisconsult and adherence to Khomeini’s leadership, and secondly, the continued need to struggle against the Israeli enemy” . [10]

In the early 1990s, Hezbollah underwent a process of “Lebanonization”, which is reflected in the acceptance of a multi-confessional Lebanon, rapprochement with a variety of non-Islamist forces, participation in electoral politics , and emphasis on providing for the social welfare of its Shi’a Lebanese constituency. [11] This situation is expressed in the following:

Christians and Jews differ with Muslims concerning the interpretation of the unity of God and the personality of God. Despite that, the Qur’an commands: Turn to the principle of unity-the unity of God and the unity of mankind. We interpret this to mean that we can meet with Marxists on the common ground of standing up to the forces of international arrogance; we can meet nationalists, even secular nationalists, on the common ground of Arab causes, which are also Islamic causes. Islam recognizes the Other …. So Islam does not negate the Other; it invites the Other to dialogue. [12]

Since then, Hizbullah published a new manifesto on December 1, 2009, which shifts its direction to better stay coherent with the current situation in their community. This new manifesto contains the language of the Islamic rhetoric and the integration of their community. Furthermore, the new manifesto calls for the elimination of the sectarian system in place right now in Lebanon and calls for replacement of this system by a secular modern system. However, the new manifesto states that the US and Israel are still Hizb’Allah’s prime enemies. Moreover, it eliminates the possibility of open discussion on its right to bear arms. It’s all about this agenda with the assistance of various like-minded Allies in the region.

Shi’a Islamism

We are the sons of the ummah (Muslim community) – the party of God (Hizb Allah) the vanguard of which was made victorious by God in Iran. There the vanguard succeeded to lay down the basics of a Muslim state which plays a central role in the world. We obey the orders of one leader, wise and just, that of our tutor and faqih (jurist) who fulfills all the necessary conditions: Ruhollah Musawi Khomeini …. We are an umma linked to the Muslims of the whole world by the solid Islam, whose message God wanted to be fulfilled by the Seal of the Prophets, ie, Muhammad. Our behavior is dictated by the principles of the political system, defined by the leading jurist …. As for our culture, it is based on the Holy Koran,[13]

Hezbollah was formed with the help of Ayatollah Khomeini’s followers in the early eighties in order to spread Islamic Revolution [4] and follows a separate version of Islamic Shi’a ideology (” Willayat Al-Faqih “) developed by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini , leader of the Islamic Revolution in Iran . [6] Although Hezbollah believes in one-person-one-vote system and disagreed with multi-confessional quotas under the Ta’if Accord , it does not intend to force a one-person-one-vote system onto the country’s Christians. [14]

Hezbollah views its conflict with Israel and the Jewish people as religiously motivated. The history of the Arab-Israeli conflict is a repeat of the negative interactions between the Jews of Arabia and Muhammad and the early umma described in the Koran and other classical Islamic texts. God, according to Hezbollah theology, cursed all Jews and blasphemers. [15] [16]Hezbollah believes that the destruction of Israel will bring about the “reappearance of the Imam (the Shiite Islamic Messiah)”. [17]These issues are independent of Israeli treatment of Palestinians or even the existence of the State of Israel, though Hezbollah has strong objections to these more earthly matters as well. Hezbollah leader Sayyed Hassan Nasrallah said in an interview that “Israel is an illegitimate entity and it is a threat to the region. It is a constant threat to the whole region. We can not coexist with this threat. That is why the ultimate goal of the [Arab and Islamic] nation is to end Israel’s existence irrespective of the problems, sensitivities and Everything That HAS happened and could happen entre Palestinians and non-Palestinians, Shia and Sunni, Muslims and Christians. ” [ 18]

Attitudes, statements, and actions concerning

Israel and Zionism

From the inception of Hezbollah to the present [19] [20] [21] [22] The elimination of the state of Israel has been a primary goal for Hezbollah. Hezbollah not only opposes the government and policies of the State of Israel, but also each and every one of the Jewish citizens who lives in Israel. [23] Its 1985 manifesto reportedly states “We do not have a treaty with it, we have no ceasefire, and no peace agreements.” [9] [24]Secretary-General Nasrallah has stated, ” Israel is an illegal usurper entity, which is based on falsehood, massacres, and illusions,” [25]and considers that the elimination of Israel will bring peace in the Middle East: “There is no solution to the conflict in this region except with the disappearance of Israel.” [26] [27] In an interview with The Washington Post, Nasrallah said, “I am against any reconciliation with Israel.” I do not even recognize the presence of a state that is called “Israel.” I do not think it will be possible to do so in the United Kingdom, but that is why it should be concluded that peace agreement with Israel and Israel does not allow any reconciliation with Israel in principle. concluded between the Lebanese Government and Israel, we would be willing to disagree with the Lebanese government about this, but we would not make it any more. ” [28] In 1993, during the Oslo peace process, Nasrallah and several other top Hezbollah generals came out of the final peace agreement between the Israelis and Palestinians to the point that they spoke Palestinian National Authority President Yasser Arafat of blasphemy and treachery to the Muslim people. [29] Their strong objections to the Israeli-Palestinian peace process is held to this day. [30] [31] Jerusalem and the Dome of the Rock is used as a rallying point in Hezbollah literature, media, and music for the destruction of Israel and support for Palestine. [32]

In a 1999 interview, Nasrallah outlined the group’s “minimal demand [s]: an [Israeli] withdrawal from South Lebanon and the Western Bqa ‘Valley , withdrawal from the Golan , and the return of the Palestinian refugees “. [25] An additional objective is the freeing of prisoners held in Israeli jails , [5] [33] [34] some of whom have been imprisoned for eighteen years. [35]

Israel’s occupation of the Shebaa Farms , along with the presence of Lebanese prisoners in Israeli jails , is often used as a pretext and stated as justification for the Hezbollah’s continued hostilities against Israel in Lebanon. Hezbollah’s spokesperson Hassan Ezzedin, however, said that

the Hezbollah campaign to rid Shebaa of Israeli troops is a pretext for something larger. ‘If they go from Shebaa, we will not stop fighting them’, he told [ The New Yorker ]. ‘Our goal is to liberate the 1948 borders of Palestine, … The Jews who survive this war of liberation can go back to Germany or wherever they came from.’ He added, however, that the Jews who lived in Palestine before 1948 will be allowed to live as a minority and they will be cared for by the Muslim majority. ” [36]

On May 26, 2000, Hassan Nassrallah said: “I tell you: this” Israel “that is more powerful than a spiderweb.” [37] [38] Arie W. Kruglanski , Moshe Ya’alon , Bruce Hoffman, Efraim Inbar, and YNET interpret the “spider web” theory as the notion, articulated by Hezbollah leader Hassan Nasrallah, that Israel’s reverence for human life, the hedonistic nature of the Israeli society, and its self-indulgent Western values ​​make it weak, soft, and vulnerable. Such a society, though technologically advanced, will continue to be warned and bloodshed. [39] [40] [41] [42]

In 2002, according to the BBC, Hezbollah, “said that it is ready to open a second front against Israel in support of the intifada.” [43] In a 2003 interview, Nasrallah has answered questions regarding the establishment of a Palestinian state’s Israeli state that “it would not be sabotaging what is finally a Palestinian matter.” But until such a settlement is reached, he will, he said, continues to encourage Palestinian suicide bombers. ” [44] In the same interview, Nasrallah stated that “at the end of the road no one can go to war on behalf of the Palestinians, even if that is not in agreement with what the Palestinians agreed on,” adding, “Of race,Go to Israel … [but] let it happen. I would say nothing. ” [44] Similarly, in 2004, Nasrallah said he would not sabotage what is a Palestinian matter. [19] He also said that outside of Lebanon, Hezbollah would only act in a defensive manner towards Israeli forces, and that Hezbollah’s missiles were acquired to deter attacks on Lebanon. [45]

In a 2003 interview, Nasrallah answered questions regarding renewed peace talks between the Palestinians and the Israelis, stating that he would not interfere in what he regarded as “… primarily a Palestinian matter.” However, in his speeches to his followers, he provides rationalizations for suicide bombings. [46] Similarly, in 2004, Nasrallah said again that he would not sabotage what is finally a “… Palestinian matter.” [19] He also said that outside of Lebanon, Hezbollah would have been in a defensive manner towards Israeli forces, and that Hezbollah ‘s missiles were acquired to deter attacks on Lebanon. [45]

In 2004 the Hezbollah-owned television station Al-Manar was banned in France on the grounds that it was inciting racial hatred . The court cited a 23 November 2004 broadcast in which a speaker accused Israel of deliberately disseminating AIDS in Arab nations. [47]

Hezbollah’s desire for Israeli prisoners to be That Could be Exchanged with Israel led to Hezbollah’s abduction of Israeli soldiers , qui triggered the 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict . [48]

In March 2009, in a speech marking the birthday of Muhammad , Nasrallah said, “As long as Hezbollah exists, it will never recognize Israel.” rejecting a US precondition for dialogue. [49] [50] [51] A prominent Hezbollah poster at a May 2009 rally had an image of a cloud mushroom along with the message, “O Zionists, if you want this type of war then so be it!” [52]

The United States

Hezbollah has been held responsibly or partially responsible for several attacks on Western (mostly American) targets and it has been blamed for killing many Americans. [53] Hezbollah has denied involvement in the attacks, but it is claimed that the world knows that it is going to be opposed to the US, that it is arrogant superpower, can not indulge in marginal acts, which makes us deviate from its major objective. abomination and we shall tear out its very roots, its primary roots, which are the US. ” [9] Hezbollah supporters sing ” Death to America ” in demonstrations every year. [54] This attitude mirrors the attitude of the Iranian government. [55]

Hezbollah leader Fadlallah has told an interviewer, “We believe there is no difference between the United States and Israel, the latter is a mere extension of the train.The United States is ready to fight the world to defend Israel’s existence and security. Two countries are working in complete harmony, and the United States is certainly not inclined to exert pressure on Israel. ” [56]

On its Al-Manar Television network, which is viewed by “an estimated 10-15 million people a day across the world”, the United States is portrayed by an animated image of “the Statue of Liberty as a ghoul, her gown dripping blood , a knife instead of a torch in her wom … In the case of the world, with the words: ‘America owes blood to all of humanity.’ ” [57]

Jews and Judaism

Hezbollah has declared that it distinguishes between Zionism and Judaism and that it opposes Zionism.

  • On 30 November 2009, while reading the party’s new political manifesto, Hassan Nasrallah declared “Our problem with [the Israelis] is not that they are Jews, but they are occupying who are raping our land and holy places.” [58]
  • In a Pro-Palestinian Convention held in Beirut in 2005, Hezbollah representative in the Lebanese Parliament Abdullah Qussayr [59] said that “Hezbollah has never been against religions.” Hezbollah supports all religions, it supports interfaith dialogue, and it has no problem Hezbollah considers Zionism to be the enemy, not the Jews as a people or a religion. ” [60]
  • According to Joseph Alagha , Hezbollah “only looks at Jews living in Israel as Zionists, who should be killed”. [61] Alagha concludes that Hezbollah “neither discriminates against Jews nor a race” and that it is “not anti-Semitic in its overall orientation.” [61]
  • How to rebuild the Maghen Abraham Synagogue in Beirut, Hussein Rahhal, spokesman for Hezbollah said that the group supports the restoration of the synagogue: “We respect the Jewish religion just like we do Christianity …. The Jews have “We have an issue with Israel’s occupation of land.” [62]
  • Some Orthodox Jews from Neturei Karta have expressed their support for Hezbollah and their anti zionist struggle. [63]

However, the group has been accused of using antisemitism .

  • Robert S. Wistrich devotes an entire chapter of his comprehensive history of anti-Semitism, A Lethal Obsession , to Hezbollah and other like-minded anti-Semitic groups. In the book, Wistrich described Hezbollah’s anti-Semitism as “contempt normally reserved for weak and cowardly enemies.” Like the Hamas propaganda for holy war, which Hezbollah has relied on the endless vilification of Jews as “enemies of mankind,” conspiratorial, obstinate, and conceited ‘adversaries full of’ satanic plans ‘to enslave the Arabs’ It fuses traditional Islamic anti-Judaism with Western conspiracy myths , Third Worldist anti-Zionism, and Iranian Shiite contempt for Jews as ‘ritually impure’ and corrupt infidels.
  • Jeffrey Goldberg , staff writer for The New Yorker , described the group as “very, very radical, anti-semitic organization.” [65] He stated that Hezbollah has embraced an ideology “melting of Arab nationalist-based anti-Zionism, anti-Jewish rhetoric from the Koran, and, most disturbingly, the ancient anti-Semitic beliefs and conspiracy theories of European fascism.” [66] An article by Jeffrey Goldberg published in The New Yorker in 2002 quoted Ibrahim Mousawi , the director of English-language news at Al Manar , calling the Jews “a lesion on the forehead of history.” [67]
  • The Hezbollah-owned and operated Al-Manar television station was criticized for airing “anti-Semitic propaganda” in the form of a television drama depicting a Jewish world domination conspiracy , [68] [69] [70] and for making accusations that Jews deliberately spread AIDS. [71] [72] Hezbollah also used antisemitic educational materials designed for 5-year-old scouts. [73] [74]
  • In 1996, Hezbollah called on Muslims to boycott the movie Independence Day , calling it “propaganda for the so-called genius of the Jews and their alleged concern for humanity.” [75] In the movie, a Jewish scientist played by Jeff Goldblum helps save the world from an alien invasion. Goldblum replied that “Hezbollah has missed the point: the film is not about American Jews saving the world; it’s about teamwork among people of different religions and nationalities to defeat a common enemy.” Hezbollah’s anti-Jewish crusade, Goldblum added, “does not sit well with me.”
  • Amal Saad-Ghorayeb , a Lebanese writer and political analyst, Devoted year Entire chapter of her book Hizbu’llah: Politics and Religion to an analysis of Hezbollah’s anti-Jewish beliefs. [76] Saad-Ghorayeb argues that although Zionism has influenced Hezbollah’s anti-Judaism, “it is not contingent upon it” because Hezbollah’s hatred of Jews is more religiously motivated than politically motivated. [76]
  • According to Shaul Shai , The Hassan Nasrallah has often made sharp anti-Semitic statements that not only revile Israel as a state, but also the entire Jewish people, while using themes taken from mainstream Muslim anti-Semitism. [77]

Anti-Semitic statements have been attributed to prominent figures in Hezbollah and to Hassan Nasrallah .

  • In a 1998 speech marking the Day of Ashura , and published in Hassan Nasrallah’s official website [78] [79] [80] at that time, Nasrallah referred to Israel as “the state of the grandson of apes and pigs – the Zionist Jews” and condemned them as “the murderers of the prophets.” [81] [82] [83] MEMRI , CAMERA and Shaul Shai interpret this language as broadly antisemitic. [81] [83] [84]
  • According to the Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs , Hassan Nasrallah, speaking at the Moslem Shi’ite “Ashura” flogging ceremony on April 9, 2000, said: “The Jews invented the legend of the Nazi atrocities …. Anyone who reads the Koran and the holy writings of the monotheistic religions sees what they did to the prophets, and what acts of madness and slaughter of the Jews carried out throughout history …. Anyone who reads these texts can not think of co-existence with them, of peace with them, or about accepting their presence, not only in Palestine of 1948 but even in a small village in Palestine, because they are a cancer which is liable to spread again at any moment. ” [85]
  • According to Shaul Shai, Hassan Nasrallah said in a speech delivered in Beirut and aired on Al-Manar TV on September 28, 2001: “What do the Jews want? They want security and money. If you look over the world, you will find one more miserly or greedy than they are. ” [77]
  • Badih Chayban in his 23 October 2002 article in The Daily Star , Nasrallah said that “if [Jews] all gather in Israel, it will save the trouble of going after the world.” [86] Charles Glass believes that the quotation was likely a fabrication, citing other published accounts of Nasrallah’s speech that had no reference to the anti-Semitic how, and statements by the editor-in-chief of the Lebanese newspaper which published the quotes, that questioned both the translation and the “agenda of the translator.” [87] Glass also wrote that Hezbollah spokeswoman, Wafa Hoteit, denied that Nasrallah made the statement. [87]
  • Saad-Ghorayeb quotes Hassan Nasrallah as saying, “If we looked for the whole world for a more cowardly, despicable, weak and feeble in psyche, mind, ideology and religion, we would not find anyone like the Jew. say the Israeli. ” [88] [89]
  • Saad-Ghorayeb quotes Hezbollah’s Deputy-General Shaykh Na’im Qasim as saying, “The history of Jews has proven that, regardless of the Zionist proposal, they are a people who are evil in their ideas.” [90]
  • Appearing on Al-Manar television, Hassan Nasrallah praised well-known European Holocaust deniers David Irving and Roger Garaudy . [91]

Position on the strength of the forces of strength

Hezbollah’s 1985 founding Manifesto reads:

“whatever touches or strikes the Muslims in Afghanistan, Iraq, the Philippines and elsewhere reverberates throughout the whole of the Muslim world. and when it becomes necessary to carry out the Holy War, each of us takes up his assignment in the fight against the injunctions of the Law, and that in the framework of the mission carried out under the tutelage of the Commanding Jurist. ” [13]

Hezbollah regards any act of violence committed against any Israeli as “legitimate resistance.” [32]

Women’s rights

In keeping with Lebanon’s Generally secular and egalitarian cultural , Hezbollah Promotes and Recognizes women’s rights Somewhat Strongly more than do other groups associated with Islamic Jihad , as per Hezbollah’s self-Proclaimed “model and example.” [92] [93]

One member of the Hezbollah Political Council, speaking on an Online Journal Corresponds in July 2006, “Hezbollah differs from many Islamic groups in our treatment of women.We believe women have the ability to participate in all parts of life.” [93] The Online Journal correspond writes:

Hezbollah, Hezbollah, Hezbollah, Hezbollah, Hezbollah Hezbollah, Hezbollah, Hezbollah Hezbollah, Hezbollah, Hezbollah, Hezbollah -year-old Rima Fakhry to its highest ruling body, Hezbollah Political Council, Part of Fakhry’s duties include interpretation of Islamic feminism in Sharia law for the Committee for Political Analysis. ” [93]

Sectarianism

Hezbollah leader Hassan Nasrallah has many times spoken against sectarianism [94] and said that he will be the first “to join a true Sunni government.” [95] Hezbollah has slammed ISIS for seeking to ignite sectarian strife in Lebanon. [96] Sectarianism, power-hungry politicians and a sham democracy are among the factors that have prevented the establishment of a strong Lebanese state, Hezbollah MP Hasan Fadlallah said. [97] While Hezbollah strongly opposes sectarianism, its involvement in support of Bashar al-Assad against a largely Sunni Muslim opposition in the Syrian Civil War has contributed to sectarian tensions with Lebanese Sunnis.[98] Hezbollah officials have stated thatthey wishto defend Lebanon and Syria from takfiris , a term they use to denote Sunni Islamist forces, but which many Sunnis interpret as a slur against them as a whole, Islamist or non-Islamist. [99]

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