Fundamental Rights Agency

The  European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights  (usually Known in English as the  Fundamental Rights Agency  ,  FRA  ) is a Vienna -based agency of the European UnionInaugurated on 1 March 2007. It was Established by Council Regulation (EC) No 168/2007 of February 15, 2007.

Mandate

The FRA is an EU body tasked with “collecting and analyzing data on fundamental rights with reference to, in principle, all rights listed in the Charter “; however, it is intended to focus particularly on “the thematic areas within the scope of EU law”.  [1]

These issues are defined by Council Decision No. 252/2013 / EU of 11 March 2013, establishing a Multiannual Framework for 2013-2017 for the Agency. They are: access to justice; victims of crime; information society; Roma integration; judicial co-operation; rights of the child; discrimination; immigration and integration of migrants; and racism and xenophobia.

The FRA’s primary methods of surveying, reporting, provision of expert assistance to EU bodies , member states , and EU candidate countries and potential candidate countries , and raising awareness about fundamental rights.  [2]  The FRA is not mandated to intervene in individual cases but rather to investigate broad issues and trends.

History

The FRA was established in 2007 as the successor to the  European Monitoring Center on Racism and Xenophobia  (EUMC), which was also based in Vienna. The EUMC’s mandate is that of the FRA, as it was restricted to issues of racism and xenophobia .

The EUMC grew from the Commission on Racism and Xenophobia (CRX), established in 1994, and also known as the Kahn Commission. The CRX was transformed into the EUMC in June 1998; Established by Council Regulation (EC) No 1035/97 of 2 June 1997.

Publications and surveys

Since its inception, the FRA has published and published reports. A full list of publications is given on Publications & Resources> Publications. This section discusses reports that have seen significant attention from outside observers.

Survey: Violence against Women

In March 2014, FRA published a major survey on violence against women , based on face-to-face interviews with over 42,000 women from across the Member States of the EU.  [3]  [4]  The survey Asked about Their experiences of physical, sexual and psychological violence Including incidents of intimate partner violence ( ‘ domestic violence ‘). Questions also asked about incidents of stalking , sexual harassment and online harassment and their experience of violence in childhood .

According to the responses of the report

  • 33% of women had experienced physical and / or sexual violence since the age of 15;  [5]
  • 22% had experienced physical and / or sexual violence by a partner;
  • 5% had been raped , and;
  • 33% had childhood experiences of physical or sexual violence at the hands of an adult.

Survey: EU-MIDIS (Minorities and Discrimination)

In 2009, FRA released a survey on the experiences of discrimination , racist crime , and policing of minority groups and immigration groups in the EU. The survey was based on 23,000 individuals from selected ethnic minorities and immigrant groups, and more than 5,000 people from the majority population living in the United States .  [6]  [7]  Key findings of the survey include that:

  • 55% of respondents who said they had experienced discrimination in their past 12 months;  [8]
  • 12% said they had already experienced a racist crime in the past 12 months, however 80% did not report the incident to the police;
  • Roma reported the highest levels of discrimination, in which they were discriminated against in the last 12 months,  [9]  and;
  • High levels of discrimination were also mentioned by Sub-Saharan Africans (41%) and North Africans (36%).

A second round of the survey (EU-MIDIS II) is currently underway, and the results will be published in 2016. This will collect comparable data, and assess the impact of national anti-discrimination and equality legislation and policies in the EU.  [10]

Survey: European lesbian union, gay, bisexual and transgender survey

In 2013, FRA conducted an online survey to identify how lesbian , gay , bisexual and transgender ( LGBT ) people living in the European Union experience the fulfillment of their fundamental rights. This followed a 2009 report on homophobia and discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation or gender identity  [11]  . The results reflect the experiences of more than 93,000 individuals  [12] who completed the online survey across Europe. The aim is to support the development of more effective laws and policies to fight discrimination, violence and harassment, improving equal treatment across society.  [13]

From the findings, it was noted that:

  • 2 out of 3 LGBT respondents were hid or disguised being LGBT at school;  [14]
  • 19% of respondents who are discriminated against by the employer or the employer;
  • More than 1/4 of LGBT people who have been attacked or threatened with violence in the last five years, while more than half of these did not report the incident.  [15]

Methodology

LGBT populations, to encourage the reporting of ‘hard-to-reach’ or ‘closeted’ populations, to encourage reporting of sensitive or negative experiences, such as criminal victimization, and bias bias, gold face-to-face interview approaches.  [16]  Multiple responses have been discussed through the length of the survey and the complexity of the survey, while the input process has been closely monitored for falsifications. The results are not intended to be representative of LGBT people in the EU, but provide the largest collection of empirical evidence on LGBT people in Europe to date.  [16] Data on the perceptions of discrimination on the subject of sexual orientation or gender identity of the general public was not included in the survey, as it is already collected by Eurobarometer . The analysis of the results in the EU LGBT survey – Main results report compares some Eurobarometer data with the EU LGBT survey results.  [16]

Survey: Roma

The Agency has a multi-annual program to allow it to be carried out on a regular basis and to provide evidence based on the EU. Data from the 2011 Roma survey is available via an online data explorer tool .

Publications of the EUMC

EUMC published reports are available from the website  [17]  of the FRA, the EUMC successor agency. A selection is given below.

Report: Working Definition of Antisemitism

In 2005, the EUMC published a working definition of antisemitism , which provides guidance for identifying incidents, collecting data and supporting implementation and enforcement of legislation dealing with antisemitism. In November 2013 the definition was removed from the organization’s website in ‘a clear-out of non-official documents’. A spokesman stated that the document had been reviewed as a valid definition and that “We are not aware of any official definition”.  [18]  [19]

The working definition stated: “Antisemitism is a certain perception of Jews , which may be expressed in the context of Jewish or non-Jewish individuals. facilities. ”

Brian Klug argues that this definition of the criticism of the Israeli rights of the Israeli Government by the Israeli Government to the criticism of Israel into the category of antisemitism, and does not distinguish between criticism of Israeli actions and criticism of Zionism as a political ideology, on the one hand, and racially based violence towards, discrimination against, or abuse of, Jews.  [20]  Sociologist Paul Igansky states that parallels between Israeli policies and those of the Nazis are “arguably not intrinsically antisemitic,” and that the context in which they are made is critical.  [21]

The Report of the All-Party Parliamentary Inquiry into Antisemitism : Government Response 29 March 2007 noted that “from the EUMC’s evidence to the Committee”, the “definition is in fact a work in progress and has not been recommended to states for adoption”.  [22]

Report: Rise in antisemitic attacks in the EU

In 2003 a report labeled ‘Manifestations of antisemitism in the EU 2002 – 2003’ was published.  [23]  Jewish businesses, synagogues , cemeteries and individuals. The countries with the most significant number of attacks were Belgium , France , Germany , the Netherlands and the UK . It is the only report made by the EUMC on antisemitism.

Report: Rise of Islamophobic attacks in the EU 9/11

The Largest monitoring project ever to be commissioned Regarding Islamophobia Was Undertaken Following 9/11 by the European Monitoring Center on Racism and Xenophobia (EUMC).

From a total of 75 reports, 15 from Each member state, a synthesis report, Entitled “Summary report is Islamophobia in the EU after-11 September 2001,” Was published in May 2002.  [24]  The postponement highlight highlighted opportunities in citoyens qui abused and sometimes violently attacked Muslims . Discrimination included verb abuse, indiscriminately accusing Muslims of responsibility for the attacks, removing women’s hijab , spitting, using the name “Usama” as a pejorative epithet, and assaults. The report concludes that “a greater receptivity towards anti-Muslim and other xenophobic ideas and feelings has, and may well continue, to become more tolerated”.  [24]

Reception

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The need for a new human rights institution has been one of the main concerns of the Council of Europe (CoE), of which all member states have been members.  [25]  In 2007 the British Conservative MEP Syed Kamall said: “The Fundamental Rights Agency will take £ 20m ($ 30m) of taxpayers’ money and use it to advance a partisan agenda with little accountability to anyone”.  [26]  In 2010 the German newspaper  Die Welt  reported that the center-right French politician Pierre Lellouche , then EU minister in the Sarkozy government, questioned “the added value” of the FRA when the Council of Europe already took care of human rights. [27]

A Resolution adopted in September 2009, in which the condemned to “Law on the Protection of Minors”, which was then under discussion in Lithuania, as “homophobic” and requested the FRA to issue a legal opinion with the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights.  [28]  The Lithuanian Parliament, however, responded by adopting a resolution that states that it is an “illegal act” and that it does not mandate the Lithuanian. Government to take legal action against the EP before the European Court of Justice .  [29]

See also

  • All-Party Parliamentary Group against Anti-Semitism
  • Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union
  • Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs
  • Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination
  • Committee on Women’s Rights and Gender Equality
  • European Commission Against Racism and Intolerance
  • European Commissioner for Employment, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities
  • European Commissioner for Justice, Freedom & Security
  • European Court of Justice
  • LGBT rights in the European Union

References

  1. Jump up^  “Proposal for a Council Regulation establishing the European Union for Fundamental Rights” (PDF) . European Commission . Retrieved 23 July2010 .
  2. Jump up^  “European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights” . European Commission . Retrieved 28 January 2015 .
  3. Jump up^  “Violence against women: an EU-wide survey.” Main results report ” . European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights . Retrieved 25 February2015 .
  4. Jump up^  “Report reveals’ extensive ‘violence against women in EU’ . The Guardian . Retrieved 5 March 2014 .
  5. Jump up^  “Violence against women: One-third of EU women affected – survey” . BBC News . Retrieved 5 March 2014 .
  6. Jump up^  “EU MIDIS Main results report” . European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights . Retrieved 10 March 2015 .
  7. Jump up^  “EU MIDIS: FRA survey sheds new light on the extent of racism in the EU” . Regional Center for Minorities . Retrieved 10 March 2015 .
  8. Jump up^  “Diskriminierung in der EU ist” gravierendes Problem ” ” . Kleine Zeitung. Archived from the original on April 2, 2015 . Retrieved 1 August2012 .
  9. Jump up^  “Los gitanos, the minoría más discriminada en Europa, por encima de árabes y judíos” . El Mundo . Retrieved 9 April 2010 .
  10. Jump up^  “EU-MIDIS II: European Union minorities and discrimination survey” . European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights . Retrieved 10 March2015 .
  11. Jump up^  “Homophobia and Discrimination on Grounds of Sexual Orientation in the EU Member States Part I – Legal Analysis” . European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights . Retrieved 24 March 2015 .
  12. Jump up^  “LGBT Discrimination In Europe: Most Gay People Afraid To Hold Hands In Public, Survey Says” . Huffington Post . Retrieved 24 March 2015 .
  13. Jump up^  “EU LGBT survey: Poll on homophobia sparks concern” . BBC . Retrieved 25 March 2015 .
  14. Jump up^  “Fear, isolation and discrimination common in Europe’s LGBT community” . RTE . Retrieved 24 March 2015 .
  15. Jump up^  “EU LGBT survey: Poll on homophobia sparks concern” . BBC . Retrieved 25 March 2015 .
  16. ^ Jump up to: c   “EU LGBT Survey Technical Report and Questions & answers are LGBT survey methodology” . European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights . Retrieved 24 March 2015 .
  17. Jump up^  “Publications | European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights” .  Fra.europa.eu  . 2005-07-07 . Retrieved 2016-02-17 .
  18. Jump up^  “SWC to EU Baroness Ashton:” Return Anti-Semitism Definition Document to EU Fundamental Rights Agency Website “| Simon Wiesenthal Center” .  Wiesenthal.com  . 2013-11-06 . Retrieved 2016-02-17 .
  19. Jump up^  “EU drops its’ working definition of anti-Semitism .  Times of Israel  . Retrieved 2014-01-24 .
  20. Jump up^   Klug, Brian (March 2005). “Is Europe lost cause? The European debate on antisemitism and the Middle East conflict” .  Patterns of Prejudice  .  39  (1): 46-59. doi : 10.1080 / 00313220500045253 . Retrieved 24 July2010 .
  21. Jump up^  Igansky, Paul, “Conceptualizing Anti-Jewish Hate Crime,” in Hate Crimes , byBarbara A. Perry(Ed.), Greenwood Publishing Group, 2009, pp 114-115
  22. Jump up^  Great Britain. Department for Communities and Local Government.  All-party inquiry into antisemitism: government response; One year on progress report , The Stationery Office, 2008,ISBN 0-10-173812-9,p. 6
  23. Jump up^  “Manifestations of Antisemitism in the EU 2002-2003” (PDF) . European Monitoring Center on Racism and Xenophobia . Retrieved 24 July 2010 .
  24. ^ Jump up to: b   Christopher Allen ; Jørgen S. Nielsen (May 2002). “Summary Report on Islamophobia in the EU after 11 September 2001” (PDF) . Vienna: European Monitoring Center on Racism and Xenophobia . Retrieved 24 July 2010 .
  25. Jump up^  Financial Times, 7. February 2005
  26. Jump up^  “Europe | EU gets fundamental rights agency” . BBC News . 2007-03-01 . Retrieved 2016-02-17 .
  27. Jump up^  “Immer mehr Agenturen: Die verrückte Behördenschwemme in der EU – DIE WELT” .  Welt.de  . 1970-01-01 . Retrieved 2016-02-17 .
  28. Jump up^   Phillips, Leigh (2009-09-17). “EU parliament condemns Lithuanian anti-gay law” . EUobserver . Retrieved 2009-09-18 .
  29. Jump up^  “The controversial Lithuanian Law on the Protection of Minors – Lithuanian Parliament v. European Parliament | The Lithuania TribuneThe Lithuania Tribune” .  Lithuaniatribune.com  . 11 November 2009. Archived from the original on 1 March 2012 . Retrieved 17 February 2016 .

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