Expulsions of Jews



In Jewish history , Jews have experienced mass expulsions or ostracism by various local authorities and have sought refuge in other countries.

The Land of Israel was widely regarded by the Jews as the Jewish homeland , though most of them were barred from the land. After its establishment in 1948, the State of Israeladopted the 1950 Law of Return restoring Israel as the Jewish homeland and making it the place of refuge for  Jewish refugees  at the time and into the future. This law was intended to encourage Jews to return to their homeland in Israel.

After 1970 the Jackson-Vanik amendment granted to those Jewish emigrants from the Soviet bloc countries who would like to enter the United States refugee status with federal assistance in the initial stages of their resettlement.

List of events that prompted major streams of Jewish refugees

722 BCE
The Assyrians led by Shalmaneser conquered the (Northern) Kingdom of Israel and the Israelites into captivity at Khorasan . Ten of Twelve Tribes of Israel are considered lost; But these tribes are not considered Jewish , rather than Samaritan . These tribes-have-been living since then near the city of Nablus in what is today the West Bank .
597 BCE
The Babylonian captivity . In 537 BCE the Persians , who conquered Babylon , Jerusalem and the Temple .
70
The defeat of the Great Jewish Revolt . Masses of Jews were sold to the Roman Empire , many fled.
119
Large Jewish communities of Cyprus, Cyrene and Alexandria become extinct after the Jewish defeat in Kitos War against Rome. This event caused a major demographic shift in the Levant and North Africa. According to Eusebius of Caesarea, the outbreak of violence in Libya has been reported to have been reduced to such an extent by the Emperor Hadrian to maintain the viability of continued settlement.  quote needed  ]
135
The Novels defeated Bar Kokhba’s revolt . Emperor Hadrian expelled hundreds of thousands of Jews from Judea , replaced by Palestine Palaestina , forbade Jews to set foot in Jerusalem.
629
The entire Jewish population of Galilee is massacred or expelled, following the Jewish rebellion against Byzantium .
7th century
Muhammad expelled Jewish tribes Banu Qaynuqa and Banu Nadir from Medina , The Banu Qurayza tribe was slaughtered and the Jewish settlement of Khaybar was ransacked. All three tribes previously had a peace treaty with Muhammad, but they broke the treaty and sided with the opposition. The Banu Qurayza, not only sided with the opposing leaders (The Quraish) but they also waged war against Muhammad.
1095 – mid-13th century
The waves of Crusades destroyed hundreds of Jewish communities in Europe and the Middle East, including Jerusalem .
Mid-12th century
The invasion of Almohads brought to the Golden Age of Jewish culture in Spain . Among other refugees was Maimonides , who fled to Morocco , then Egypt , then Eretz Israel .
1276
Jews expelled from Upper Bavaria .  [1]
12th-14th centuries
France . The practice of expelling the Jews accompanied by confiscation of their property, followed by temporary readmissions for ransom, was used to enrich the crown: expulsions from Paris by Philip Augustus in 1182, from France by Louis IX in 1254, by Charles IV in 1322, by Charles V in 1359, by Charles VI in 1394.
13th century
The influential philosopher and logician Ramon Llull (1232-1315) called for expulsion of all Jews who would refuse conversion to Christianity. Some scholars look at Llull’s first comprehensive understanding, in the Christian West, of an expulsionist policy regarding Jews.
1288
Naples issues first expulsion of Jews in Southern Italy.  [2]
1290
King Edward I of England issues the Edict of Expulsion for all Jews from England . The politics was reversed after 365 years in 1655 by Oliver Cromwell .
1293
Destruction of most of the Jewish communities in the Kingdom of Naples.  [2]
1392
Jews expelled from Bern , Switzerland . Although between 1408 and 1427 Jews were again residing in the city, the only Jews to appear in Bern were subsequently trafficked, chiefly physicians and cattle dealers.  [3]
1442
Jews again expelled from Upper Bavaria .  [1]
1478
Jews expelled from Passau .  [1]
1491
Jews of Ravenna expelled, synagogues destroyed.  [2]
1492
Ferdinand II and Isabella I issued the Alhambra Decree , General Edict on the Expulsion of the Jews from Spain (approx 200,000), from Sicily (1493, approx 37,000), from Portugal (1496) from Calabria Italy 1554. It is important to note that this event happened on Tisha B’Av , with many other events in Jewish history.
1495
Charles VIII of France occupies Kingdom of Naples, bringing new persecution against the Jews, many of whom went there as refugees from Spain. See 1510.  [2]
1496
Jews expelled from Portugal
1499
Jews expelled from Nuremberg .  [1]
1510
Jews expelled from Naples.  [2]
1519
Jews expelled from Regensburg .  [1]
1547
Jews expelled from Naples.  [2]
1551
All remaining Jews expelled from the duchy of Bavaria. Jewish settlement in Bavaria ceded to the end of the 17th century, when a small community was founded in Sulzbach by refugees from Vienna.  [1]
1569
Pope Pius V expels the Jews from the papal states, with the exception of Ancona and Rome.  [2]
1593
Pope Clement VIII expels the Jews living in all the papal states, except Rome, Avignon and Ancona. Jews are invited to settle in Leghorn, the main port of Tuscany, where they are granted full religious liberty and civil rights, by the Medici family, who want to develop the region into a center of commerce.  [1]
1597
Nine hundred Jews expelled from Milan .  [2]
1654
The fall of the Dutch colony of Recife in Brazil to the Portuguese to the first group of Jews to flee to North America .
1701-1714
War of the Spanish Succession . After the war, Jews of Austrian origin were expelled from Bavaria, but some were able to acquire the right to reside in Munich.  [1]
1744-1790s
The reforms of Frederick II , Joseph II, and Maria Theresa feel masses of impoverished German and Austrian Jews east.  See also: Schutzjude .
1933-1957
The German Nazi persecution started with the Nazi boycott of Jewish businesses in 1933, reached a first climax during  Kristallnacht  in 1938 and culminated in the Holocaust of European Jewry . The British Mandate of Palestine prohibited Jewish emigration to Mandatory Palestine . The 1938 Evian Conference , the 1943 Bermuda Conference and other attempts to resolve the problem of Jewish refugees, was widely used in Nazi propaganda (see also MS  St. Louis  ). Many German and Austrian JewishRefugees from Nazism emigrated to Britain where many were treated, but many were not  [4]  and many fought for Britain in the Second World War. After WW-II Eastern European Holocaust survivors migrated to the allied controlled part of Europe as the Jewish society to which most of the belonged did not exist anymore. Often they have been often consumed by the people and often unwelcome in the towns from which they came. They were known as displaced persons (also known as Sh’erit ha-Pletah ) and placed in displaced persons camps , most of which were by 1951 closed. The last camp Föhrenwald was closed in 1957.
1947-1972
The Jewish exodus from Arab and Muslim countries , in which the combined population of Jewish communities of the Middle East and North Africa (excluding Israel) was reduced from about 900,000 in 1948 to less than 8,000 today, and approximately 600,000 of which became citizens of Israel . The history of the exodus is politicized, Given Proposed icts relevant to a final settlement Israeli-Palestinian peace negotiations .  [5]  [6]  [7]  [8]  [9]  [10]  [11]  When presenting the history, those who view the Jewish exodus as equivalent to the 1948 Palestinian exodus , such as the Israeli governmentand NGOs such as JJAC and JIMENA, emphasize “push factors”, such as cases of anti-Jewish violence and forced evictions,  [5]  and refer to those affected as ” refugees “.  [5]  Those who argue that the exodus does not include the Palestinian pulling factors, such as the actions of the local Jewish Agency for Israel officials to the One Million Plan ,  [7]  highlight good relations between the Jewish communities and Their country’s gouvernements,  [9]  EMPHASIZE the impact of other push factors Such as the decolonization in the Maghreb and the Suez Warand Lavon Affair in Egypt ,  [9]  and argue that many of them are not refugees.  [5]  [7]
Then UNHCR announced in February 1957 and in July 1967, that these Jews should be considered as prima facie within the mandate of this office, “as in the international law, as bona fide refugees.  [12]
1947
Egypt passed the Companies’ Law. This law required that no less than 75% of employees in Egypt must be Egyptian citizens. This law strongly affected Jews, as only about 20% of all Jews in Egypt were Egyptian citizens . The rest, born in Egypt and living there for generations, did not hold Egyptian citizenship.  [13]
1948
State of Israel established. Antisemitism in Egypt intensified. On May 15, 1948, emergency law has been declared, and a royal decree forbade Egyptian citizens to leave the country without a special permit. This was applied to Jews. Hundreds of Jews were arrested and many had their property confiscated. In June through August 1948, bombs were planted in Jewish neighborhoods and Jewish businesses looted. About 250 Jews were killed or wounded by the bombs. Roughly 14,000 Jews left Egypt between 1948-50.  [14]
1949
Jordan occupies and then annexes the West Bank – largely allotted by the 1947 A partition of Palestine to an Arab state, proposal rejected by the Arab leadership – and conducts large scale discrimination and persecution of all non-Muslim residents – Jewish, Christian (of many denominations), Druze, Circassian, etc. – and forces Arabization of all public activities, including schools and public administration.  [15]
1954
Gamal Abdel Nasser seizes power in Egypt. Nasser immediately arrested many Jews who have been tried on various charges, mainly for Zionist and communist activities. Jews were forced to donate large sums of money to the military. Strict supervision of Jewish enterprises was introduced; some have been confiscated and others forcibly sold to the government.  [14]
1956
Suez Crisis . Roughly 3,000 Egyptian Jews were interned without charge in four detention camps. They are not allowed to sell their property, nor to take any capital with them. The deportees have been made to sign statements to the United States and to transfer their property to the administration of the government. The International Red Crosshelped about 8,000 stateless Jews to leave the country, most of them to Italy and Greece. Most of the Jews of Port Said (about 100) were smuggled to Israel by Israel agents. The system of deportation continued in 1957. Other Jews left voluntarily, after their livelihoods had been taken from them, until only 8,561 were registered in the 1957 census. The Jewish exodus continued to be about 3,000 Jews left as of 1967.  [14]
1967
Six Day War . Hundreds of Egyptian Jews arrested, suffering beatings, torture, and abuse. Some Spain, are especially permitted to leave the country.  [14]  Libyan Jews , who numbered approximately 7,000, were subjected to pogroms in which 18 were killed, prompting a mass exodus that left 100 Jews in Libya .  [16]
1970
Less than 1,000 Jews still lived in Egypt in 1970. They were given permission to leave their possessions. As of 1971, only 400 Jews remained in Egypt. As of 2013, only a few dozen Jews remain in Egypt.  [14]
1960s-1989
Due to the 1968 Polish political crisis the Jews were forced to leave Poland.  See also rootless cosmopolitan , Doctors’ plot , Jackson-Vanik amendment , refusenik , Zionology , Pamyat .
1962
Jews flee Algeria as result of OAS violence. The community feared that the proclamation of independence would precipitate a Muslim outburst. By the end of July 1962, 70,000 Jews had left for France and another 5,000 for Israel. It is estimated that some 80% of Algerian Jews settled in France.  [17]
1965
Location of Jews in Algeria . By 1969, fewer than 1,000 Jews remain. By the 1990s, the numbers have dwindled to approximately 70.  [17]
1970s-1990s
State-sponsored persecution in the Soviet Union prompted hundreds of thousands of Soviet Jews to flee; most went to Israel or came to the United States on refugee status.

See also

  • History of antisemitism
  • Timeline of anti-Semitism
  • Timeline of Jewish history
  • Jewish diaspora
  • Jewish history
  • The Holocaust
  • Hirsch Schwartzberg
  • Population transfer
  • Antisemitism
  • Christianity and antisemitism
  • Islam and anti-Semitism
  • Arabs and anti-Semitism
  • Underground to Palestine
  • Evian Conference

References

  1. ^ Jump up to: h http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/judaica/ejud_0002_0003_0_02211.html
  2. ^ Jump up to: h http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/History/italytime.html
  3. Jump up^ https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/judaica/ejud_0002_0003_0_02749.html
  4. Jump up^  “Warm British welcome to Jews fleeing Nazis to ‘myth ‘” . Phys.org / University of Manchester . February 27, 2013 . Retrieved August 4, 2016 .
  5. ^ Jump up to: d  Changing tack, Foreign Ministry to bring ‘Jewish refugees’ to fore “” To define them as refugees is exaggerated, “said Alon Liel, a former director general of the Foreign Ministry.
  6. Jump up^  Changing the refugee paradigm
  7. ^ Jump up to: c  Israel scrambles Palestinian ‘right of return’ with Jewish refugee talk “Palestinian and Israeli critics have two main arguments: that these Jews were not refugees and eager participants in a new Zionist state, and that Israel can not should not attempt to settle its account with the Palestinians by deducting the lost assets of its own citizens,
  8. Jump up^  Philip MendesThe causes of the post-1948 Jewish Exodus from Arab Countries Archived2013-01-13 atArchive.is
  9. ^ Jump up to: c  Yehuda Shenhav The Arab Jews: A Postcolonial Reading of Nationalism, Religion, and Ethnicity
  10. Jump up^  Avi Shlaim No peaceful solution
  11. Jump up^  A new hasbara campaign: Countering the ‘Arab Narrative’
  12. Jump up^  http://www.gatestoneinstitute.org/3498/jewish-refugees
  13. Jump up^ http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/vjw/Egypt.html#5
  14. ^ Jump up to: e http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/vjw/Egypt.html
  15. Jump up^   Mark A. Tessler. (1994).  A History of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict  . Indiana University Press. p. 329. Jordan’s illegal occupation and annexation of the West Bank
  16. Jump up^  http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/anti-semitism/libyajews.html
  17. ^ Jump up to: b http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/vjw/Algeria.html

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Copyright antisem.eu 2018
Shale theme by Siteturner