Boycotts of Israel

Boycotts of Israel are a systematic practice of avoiding economic, political and cultural relations with the State of Israel , with individual Israelis or with Israeli-based companies or organizations . [1] Boycott campaigns are used by those who oppose Israel’s existence, citation needed ] or oppose Israel’s policies or actions over the course of the Arab-Israeli conflict , in order to show support for Israel in general, or the Israeli economy gold military in particular.

Boycotts have been enacted or proposed around the world. These boycotts included economic measures such as divestment ; a boycotts of Israeli products or businesses operating in Israel; and academic boycotts of Israeli universities . Some advocates of the Boycott, Divestment and Sanctions (BDS) campaign for the 1980s movement against South African apartheid as a model. This is due to the fact that boycotters consider Israel’s treatment of the Palestinians and its Arab minorities as similar to the system of Apartheid in South Africa. [2]

History

In Mandatory Palestine (1920-1948), anti-Zionist boycotts of Jewish-owned businesses were employed by Arabs in the field of Jewish economics, especially during the period between Jews and Arabs . Reviews The most severe attempt to boycott Jewish businesses Was Undertaken by the Arab Higher Committee , headed by Haj Amin al-Husayni in 1936. Beginning the 1936-1939 Arab revolt in Palestine .

An official organized boycott was adopted by the Arab League in December 1945, before the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948, [3] and was continued and intensified after. The Arab League boycott of Israel is an effort by Arab League member states to isolate Israel economically to prevent Arab states and non-Arab discourages from providing support to Israel and adding to Israel’s economic and military strength. [4]

Originally, the Arab boycott had a moderate negative impact on Israel’s economy and development. Inevitably the economies of the Arab world and the result of a deterioration in the foreign direct investment in the Arab world, and reduction in the volume of trade. Whether or not the Arab nations in question are aware of the potential risks to their own economies is still unknown. There is still debate as to whether, in the United States, the United States, the United States, and the United States. [5] [ unreliable source ]

Egypt (1979), the Palestinian Authority (1993), and Jordan (1994) signed peace treaties or agreements that ended their participation in the boycott of Israel. Mauritania , which never applied the boycott, established diplomatic relations with Israel in 1999. Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia do not enforce the boycott. [6]

In 1994, following the Oslo Peace Agreements , the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (GCC) states, their participation in the Arab boycott against Israel, [5] and stated that total elimination of the boycott is a necessary step for peace and economic development in the region. [6] In present days, the Arab boycott is rarely applied. The move prompted a surge of investment in Israel, and resulted in the joint venture between Israel and Arab countries. [5] [ unreliable source ]

Palestinian positions on BDS against Israel

Main article: Boycott, Divestment and Sanctions

In 2005, the International Court of Justice of the Israeli International Bank , Palestinian NGOs and labor unions issued a call for boycott, divestment and sanctions targeted at Israel with the stated goals that:

These non-violent punitive measures should be maintained until Israel meets its obligations to recognize the Palestinian people.

  1. Ending its occupation and colonization of all Arab lands and dismantling the Wall;
  2. Recognizing the fundamental rights of the Arab-Palestinian citizens of Israel to full equality; and
  3. Respecting, protecting and promoting the rights of Palestinian refugees to return to their homes as stipulated in UN resolution 194.

According to Geocartography Knowledge, 85% of Palestinian residents in the West Bank are interested in cooperation with Israel. [7] The PLO, its branches, Palestinian businesses and universities co-operation with Israel daily. According to the head of the Federation of Trade Unions of Palestine, Shaher Saad, in 2011 the number of Palestinians employed in Israeli settlements increased significantly to around 31,000 due to the high rate of unemployment and poverty, and that about 70,000 worked in Israel proper. [8] Sari Nusseibeh, president of Al-Quds University , opposed to boycott of Israeli universities in 2014; other Palestinian academics also told The New York Timesthey opposed Israeli universities. However, opinions of academics were divided, with at least some of those who favored BDS noting they were unsure if BDS would have any effect. [9]

List of disinvestment and boycotts

Protest in Bratislava , Slovakia following the 2009 bombings of Gaza
  • In December 2005, the Sør-Trøndelag regional council of Norway passed a motion calling for a comprehensive boycott of Israeli goods. The council acted as a result of lobbying by Norwegian activists, who had launched a national “Boycott Israel” campaign in June 2005. [10]
  • In May 2006, the Ontario section of the Canadian Union of Public Employees approved a resolution to “support the international campaign of boycott, divestment and sanctions against Israel until that state recognizes the Palestinian right to self-determination” and to protest the Israeli West Bank barrier.[11][12][13]
  • The Congress of South African Trade Unions published a letter expressing their support for the CUPE boycott of Israel.[14]
  • The Toronto assembly of the United Church of Canada (UCC) supports CUPE’s boycott. In 2003, the Toronto assembly voted to boycott goods produced by Jewish settlements in the occupied territories.[15] The national umbrella UCC declined to support a boycott at the time. In August 2012 the General Council of the United Church of Canada approved a recommendation to boycott products in Israeli settlements located within occupied Palestinian territory.[16][17]
  • The Church of England synod has voted for disinvestment from Israel, which was criticised by George Carey, the former Archbishop of Canterbury as “inappropriate, offensive and highly damaging”.[18]
  • Britain’s National Union of Journalists called for a boycott on 14 April 2007. By a vote of 66 to 54, the annual delegate’s meeting of Britain’s largest trade union for journalists called for “a boycott of Israeli goods similar to those boycotts in the struggles against apartheid South Africa led by trade unions, and [for] the [Trades Union Congress] to demand sanctions be imposed on Israel by the British government”.[19]
  • At its biennial delegate conference held in May 2008, IMPACT (the Irish Municipal, Public and Civil Trade Union), Ireland’s largest public sector and services trade union, passed two resolutions criticising Israeli suppression of the Palestinians and endorsing a boycott of Israeli goods and services. The motions also supported divestment from those corporations engaged in or profiting from the occupation of the West Bank and Gaza.[20]
  • In November 2008 the United Kingdom initiated measures to label products produced in Israeli settlements:

The Foreign Office has confirmed that Britain’s initiative against Israeli exports originating in the West Bank is merely the opening shot in a wider campaign it is waging against the settlements. […] The FO [foreign office] reiterated its view that “the settlements are illegal…. Practical steps … include ensuring that goods from the settlements do not enter the UK without paying the proper duties and ensuring that goods are properly labelled.”[21]

Sources near the talks say the United Kingdom is accusing some Israeli companies of fraud: Their labeling indicates that they manufacture in Israel, but their plants are in the territories.[22]

Based on experience, there are concerns in Israel that the discussion on exports from the territories will affect all Israeli exports to Europe. Roughly that happened four years ago, after Israel rejected European demands to specifically label products produced outside the pre-1967 war borders.[22]

Tzipi Livni protested: It appears to be the fruits of long efforts by a strong pro-Palestinian lobby that now spur the British into action. Nevertheless, the British insist that at British consumers want to know the source of the products that they purchase. […] But the biggest fear in Israel is that the issue will spill beyond manufacturers in the territories, affecting all local exporters and all exports to the EU – as was the case the last time that the issue boiled to the surface.[22]

  • In February 2009 the Belgian government decided to stop its military capabilities. Minister for Trade Patricia Ceysens said the decision followed by a cabinet discussion concerning Israel’s actions in Gaza . Belgian Foreign Minister Karel De Gucht added that “given the circumstances, weapons can not be shipped from Belgium to Israel”. [23]
  • In Britain, Ahava’s cosmetic products sparked controversy because they are manufactured in the Israeli settlement of Mitzpe Shalem, located on the Dead Sea in the West Bank. The store chain Selfridges withdrew Ahava’s products (among others) in December 2001 after a boycott campaign launched by pro-Palestinian groups,[24] but reinstated them a few weeks later.[citation needed] Critics argue that the products are labelled as having “Israeli origin” when, according to the European Union, goods originating in the West Bank or Gaza cannot be labelled as having Israeli origin because, “according to international public law, including the relevant UN Security Council Resolutions, these territories cannot be considered to be part of the State of Israel”, and are not included in the EU-Israel Association Agreement.[25] The boycott of Ahava has also been endorsed by Code Pink, which argues that Ahava’s use of Palestinian natural resources from the Dead Sea is, according to the Fourth Geneva Convention, a “patently illegal use by an occupying power of stolen resources for its own profit”. Ahava’s store in a fashionable street of London’s West End closed in September 2011 after constant protest by pro-Palestinian activists. Owners of the interior stores complained to the landlord that the protests were affecting their business. A pro-Israeli group also held fortnightly counter-demonstrations. [26]
  • The Irish Congress of Trade Unions (ICTU) launched a boycott of Israeli goods in February 2009 as a response to the Gaza War , arguing that “a sustained international effort is needed to secure a durable settlement”. [27]
  • In September 2009, Britain’s Trade Union Congress (TUC) endorsed an initiative to boycott the Israeli-occupied territories, stating “[to] increase the pressure for an end to the Israeli occupation of the Palestinian territories and separation of the wall” illegal settlements, we will support a boycott (…) of those goods and agricultural products that are sourced by the Palestinian Authority (PSC) – and campaign for disinvestment by companies associated with the occupation as well as in building the separation wall. ” The Fire Brigade Union (FBU), Unison, Unite, and the largest public sector union[28] In October 2009, the University of Sussex Students’ Union became the first in Britain to vote for a boycott of Israeli goods. Norman Finkelstein praised the move as “a victory, not for Palestinians but for truth and justice”. [29]
  • In February 2009, Israeli workers refused to leave an Israeli ship “as part of a refusal to support oppression and exploitation”. The Congress of South African Trade Unions, COSATU, compared Israel to “dictatorial and oppressive” states such as Zimbabwe and Swaziland. COSATU also drew parallels to events in 1963, when protestors began to protest against apartheid regime. The Western Australian members of the Maritime Union of Australia supported the move and called for a boycott of all Israeli vessels. [30]
  • In November 2009, the Palestinian Authority began encouraging a boycott of supermarket chains in the West Bank . According to Palestinian authorities, consumers have not been aware that these products have been produced in these settlements and that they are likely to be affected by them. The authorities in the United States of America are in the Palestinian territories. [31] The Palestinian boycott of settlement goods was widened in 2010, and it was reported that some businesses in the settlement of Maale Adumimhad closed as a consequence. [32] In August 2010 the mayor of the settlement Ariel said that the Palestinian boycott of the goods “was causing great damage to factories in the area”. [33]
  • As a response to an Israeli raid of a ship to the Gaza Strip, Swedish port workers decided to refuse processing Israeli ships for a period of one week in June 2010. [34] Similar boycotts in response to the Israeli raids in Norway [35] and California. [36]
  • In June 2010, the British Methodist Church in the United States, becoming the first major Christian denomination in Britain to officially adopt such a policy. The boycott, which was seen as placing the Methodists on a collision course with Britain ‘s Jewish minority, also encouraged the West Bank’ s West Bank. [37]
  • In July 2010, the Olympia food co-op in the State of Washington in the United States decided to stop selling products from Israel in its two grocery stores. A board member of the co-op said concerning the boycott that “any product that is made (…) to improve the conditions of the Palestinians will be exempted.” [38]
  • The World Council of Churches Called for a Boycott in 2010 from Israeli settlements . [39]
  • In February 2012, Vancouverite Shani Bar-Oz’s soap products were being boycotted for carrying Israeli products, and “venomous protests” were staged outside her store, which included the shouting of anti-semitic slogans. However, according to the owner of this website, “a huge wave of support and new business generation … with new orders for the result of the story”. [40]
  • In March 2012, the Slope Food Park Co-op rejected a boycott Israel, after months of heated debate. The final vote was 1,005-653. 1,600 members attended the meeting-larger than most meetings of the food co-op. [41]
  • In April 2012, the United Kingdom’s Co-Operative Group said in a statement that it has become known to the industry. The decision affects contracts valued at £ 350,000. The retailer had stopped selling goods in 2009. According to the group, it was still doing business with Israeli companies that are not connected with the settlements. [42] [43]
  • In June 2013, major british trade union GMB decided to ban members from Israel and the Palestinian territories on delegations organized by the Trade Union Friends of Israel (TUFI). A spokesman for GMB said the union did not want to be associated with an organization fighting a boycott of trade with illegal settlements in occupied territories. [44]
  • In July 2013, the European Union enacted a decision forbidding EU member states of cooperating with or transferring funds or giving scholarships and research grants to West Bank, eastern Jerusalem, and the Golan Heights. [45] [46]
  • In July 2013, two of the largest supermarket chains in the Netherlands. A third chain, which had already been stocked with goods, sought confirmation that goods it sold as “Made in Israel” did not originate in the settlements. Dutch retailers were deemed to be in that category, or banned altogether. [47]
  • Throughout 2013 Israeli settlements in the Jordan Valley lost 14% of their earnings in the UK and Scandinavia were shunning their products. [48]
  • On March 6, 2014, Student Students at the Galway National University of Ireland (NUI Galway) endorsed a resolution to actively support the BDS movement. [49]

Disinvestments

  • 14 Belgian municipalities left the Franco-Belgian bank Dexia , which was financing Israeli settlements through its Israeli subsidiary. [50] [51]
  • A Norwegian government pension fund shares its shares in Elbit Systems due to its role in building the West Bank barrier . [52]
  • The Norwegian government announced in August 2010 that it is based on the Norwegian Council on Ethics. According to the government, the firms of Africa Israel Investmentsand Danya Cebus were involved in developing settlements in the Palestinian territory, which is prohibited under the Fourth Geneva Convention . [53] However, in 2013, after a review of Africa-Israel’s activities, the Norwegian government announced that they could now re-invest in Africa-Israel and Danya Cebus as they were no longer involved in the construction of settlements. [54]The ban was re-instated in 2014 after Norway’s Council of Ethics received information. Danya Cebus was in fact involved with the settlements. [55]
  • German rail company Deutsche Bahn, Deutsche Bahn, Deutsche Bahn, Tel Aviv and Jerusalem, following pressure from German lawmakers. The decision was taken because of the West Bank . [56]
  • Caterpillar Inc. was “socially responsible” stock indexes by the American investment firm MSCI . MSCI cited Israel’s use of Caterpillar bulldozers in the Palestinian territories as a key reason for its decision. MSCI also cited employee safety concerns, environmental issues and a closing deal in Canada. [57]
  • In July 2004, the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church (USA) (PCUSA) voted to initiate a process of selective divestment in which it claims responsibility for the suffering of Palestinians, such as Caterpillar Inc. [58] In 2012 the church decided to reject divestment. [59] In 2014 the Presbyterians decided, by a vote of 310 to 303, to divest from Caterpillar, Hewlett-Packard and Motorola Solutions, which the church said supplying Israel with equipment used in the occupation of Palestinian territory. [60]
  • In December 2012, the New Zealand Superannuation Fund, which invests money on behalf of the New Zealand Government , for the purposes of the United West Bank Barrier. A spokesperson cited a report of illegality concerning both the Barrier and settlements as central to the decision to exclude the companies. [61]
  • In January 2014 the Dutch pension fund PGGM dumped its holdings Israeli Banks allegedly involved in financing illegal settlements. [55]
  • In January 2014 Danish Danske Bank said Israeli Bank Hapoalim was acting against the rules of international humanitarian law by engaging in settlement settlement, and that could not be considered. Danske had already decided to take over from Africa Israel Investments and Danya Cebus, for the same reason. [62]
  • In 2015, fizzy drink dispenser Sodastream maker using its factory in the West Bank housing following pressure by campaigners. Sodastream said the campaign was not affected by the boycott campaign, but boycott campaigners described the move as a clear win for their movement. [63]

Academic boycotts

Main article: Academic boycotts of Israel

In 2006, two of Britain’s lecturers’ unions, the National Association of Teachers in Higher Education and Higher Education and the Association of University Teachers , voted to support an academic boycott against Israel. [64] The AUT was banned by members at an Emergency General Meeting a few weeks later, while the NATFH boycott expired when it reached the conclusion of the University and College Union came into effect. [65] In May 2007, the UCU Congress passed Motion 30, which called for a membership in the Palestinian trade unions.

In 2009, Spanish organizers of an international solar power design competition a team from the Israeli Ariel University Center. The stated reason is that the Ariel University is located in the West Bank , a Spanish official was quoted saying, “Spain acted in line with European Union policy of opposing Israel’s occupation of Palestinian land.” [66]

The University of Science and Technology of the Israeli Academic Conference of the Israeli Academic Conference of the United States of America and the United States of America Palestinians and how it can be resolved. [67]

In 2007, nearly 300 university presidents across the United States signed a statement denouncing the boycott movement. Following Operation Cast Lead in 2010, a group of 15 American university professors launched a campaign calling for an academic and cultural boycott of Israel. In 2010 the US Campaign for the Academic and Cultural Boycott of Israel (USACBI) announced it had collected 500 endorsements from US academics for an academic and cultural boycott of Israel. The comments were made to change attitudes towards Israel in the wake of an Israeli raid on a humanitarian aid flotilla in the Mediterranean. [68] [69]

In 2011 the University of Johannesburg decided to suspend with Israeli Ben-Gurion University , quoting the University’s support for the Israeli military. The decision was made to affect projects in biotechnology and water purification. [70] However, Ihron Rensburg, vice chancellor and principal of the university issued a statement that “UJ is not part of an academic boycott of Israel … It has never been UJ’s intention to sever all ties with BGU , it may have been the intention of some UJ staff members. ” [71]

University of Pennsylvania President Amy Gutmann said in January 2012 that the university “has clearly stated on numerous occasions that it does not support sanctions or boycotts against Israel”. She said that the school was not a sponsor of a BDS conference taking place on campus in February 2012. [72]

In 2013 the Teachers Union of Ireland passed a motion calling for an academic boycott of Israel. Jim Roche, who presented the motion, said, “I am very pleased that this motion was passed on to such support by TUI members (…) there is no question that Israel is implementing apartheid policies against the Palestinians.” [73]

In May 2013, [74] Stephen Hawking joined the academic boycott of Israel by reversing his decision to participate in the Jerusalem -based Israeli Presidential Conference hosted by Israeli President Shimon Peres . Hawking approved a published statement from the British Committee for the Universities of Palestine that describes its decision as independent, “based upon his knowledge of Palestine, and on the unanimous advice of his own academic contacts there”. [75] Reactions to Hawking boycott were mixed; some praised his boycott as a “peaceful protest”, while others condemned his decision and accused him of anti-semitism .[76] [77]

On December 4, 2013, the American Studies Association (ASA) endorsed a boycott of Israeli academic institutions in the United States. are a party to Israeli state policies that violate human rights and negatively impact the working conditions of Palestinian scholars and students. [78] The election attracted the largest number of voters in the association with 66.05% for, 30.5% against and 3.43% abstaining. [79] Over 92 universities rejected the boycott and some of them with their membership in the ASA in protest of the boycott decision. [80]

In October 2014, 500 Middle East scholars and librarians issued a call for an academic boycott of Israel. According to the signatories, “the world of the media and the mainstream media do not hold Israel accountable for its violations of international law.We, however, have a community of middle eastern and middle-easterners, have a moral responsibility to do so.” [81]

In October 2014, 500 anthropologists accepted an academic boycott of Israeli institutions as complicit in violations of Palestinians’ rights. The signatories of the statement said, “a community of scholars who study problems of power, oppression, and cultural hegemony, we have a moral responsibility to speak and demand accountability from Israel and our own governments.” [82]

In January 2016, 168 Italian academics and researchers published a call to boycott Israeli academic institutions. Israel’s Institute of Technology, Technion, was singled out as a boycott target. “The Institute carries out research in a wide range of technologies and weapons used to oppress and attack Palestinians,” said the call. [83]

Arms embargoes

In 2014, Spain and the Gaza war . The embargo stopped sales of defense and dual-use material from Spain to Israel. [84] [85] [86] [87]

In 2014, in connection with the Gaza war , the United States of America, the United States , and the United States of America. In case of hostilities are underway, exports under existing licenses would be discontinued. [88]

Artistic boycotts

  • The cultural boycott of Israel Originally received the backing of famous artists Such As musicians Roger Waters and Brian Eno , [89] writers Eduardo Galeano and Arundhati Roy , [90] filmmakers Ken Loach [91] and Jean-Luc Godard . [92] Israel to Israel, Israel, Israel, Israel, Israel, Israel, Israel, Israel, Israel, Israel, Israel. [93]
  • Creative Community for Peace, founded in late 2011, is an organization made up of music executives, talent agents and entertainment lawyers who seek to counter the boycotts of Israel. [94]
  • In Ireland, the support for boycotting Israel has-been voiced since September 2006. [95] The Irish Times HAS published an open letter in January 2009 [96] with 300 signatures, Including Deputies , Senators , political leaders (Including Gerry Adams and Tony Benn ) , union leaders, professors and artists. In August 2010, 150 Irish artists launched a cultural boycott of Israel, declaring that they would not perform or exhibit in Israel, “until such time as Israel complies with international law and universal principles of human rights”. Organizers explained the boycott was motivated by what they saw in Israel. [97]
  • The Yes Men [98] pulled out of a film festival in 2009 in Israel.
  • In 2010, American singer Devendra Banhart , and Irish singer Tommy Sands canceled their shows in Israel as a response to Israeli policies. [99] That same year, Carlos Santanaalso canceled a performance following pressure from critical groups of Israel. It was not clear whether it was for political reasons or due to scheduling problems. [100] [101] Likewise, Elvis Costello called off planned gigs, citing what he called “intimidation” and “humiliation” of Palestinians. [102] [103] Jazz and spoken word artist Gil Scott-Heroncanceled in Tel Aviv in 2010, saying he “hated war”. [104] Annie Lennox states again that she will no longer perform in Israel. [105]
  • That same year, British bands The Klaxons , Gorillaz Sound System , [106] Leftfield , [107] Faithless , [108] Tindersticks [109] and Massive Attack , [110] and the American band Pixies , [111] canceled performances in Israel in apparent response to the Gaza flotilla raid .
  • Writers Henning Mankell [112] (who was on board the Freedom Flotilla), Iain Banks [113], and Alice Walker [114] publish statements in the press in support of the cultural boycott of the State of Israel.
  • In February 2010, 500 artists from the city of Montreal , including Lhasa de Sela , Gilles Vigneault , Richard Desjardins , members of Bran Van 3000 and Silver Mt. Zion , joined the cultural boycott of Israel, saying that Palestinians “face an entrenched system of racial discrimination and segregation, resembling the defeated apartheid system in South Africa “. [115]
  • That same year, a hundred Norwegian artists endorse the BDS call. [116]
  • In Israel, actors refuse to play in the 1967 occupied territories. They are quickly supported by 150 Israeli intellectuals and artists, including Lev Gordon, Gideon Levy , Shlomo Sand, Zeev Sternhell , David Grossman , AB Yehoshua , and Amos Oz . [117]
  • French singer Vanessa Paradis canceled a performance planned for February 2011 in Tel Aviv. According to insider sources, she and her husband Johnny Depp , who is threatened to boycott them too. Her agent maintained that the concert was canceled for professional reasons. [118] That same month, the classical singer Thomas Quasthoff canceled the six shows he was supposed to give in Israel. [119]
  • In September 2011, Anglo-Egyptian singer Natacha Atlas canceled in Israel and stated, “I had an idea that performing in Israel would have been a unique opportunity to encourage and support my fans’ opposition to the current government’s actions and policies. I would have personally asked my Israeli fans to share their views with them, but it would be a good idea to leave them alone until the end of the day. for all, therefore, I believe that this decision is an effective decision in this respect and that this decision represents an effective statement against this regime. ” [120]
  • In 2011, several other artists canceled their concerts in Israel. South African band Ladysmith Black Mambazo , [121] English singer Marc Almond , American jazz band Tuba Skinny , American piano player Jason Moran and Puerto Rico piano player Eddie Palmieri (these last three canceled their participation in the Red Sea Jazz Festival ), [122] ] South African rapper Ewok , [123] English band The Yardbirds , Greek Martha Frintzila and Turkish Hosam Hayek(These last two canceled their participation in the Jerusalem oud festival), [124] Malian singer Sangué Oumou , American singer Joe Lynn Turner , and young English dubstep musician Joker [125]
  • British band Faithless and its leader David Randall confirms their commitment to BDS by publishing “Freedom For Palestine” with the collective “One World” that includes Maxi Jazz , Sudha and Andy Treacy (of Faithless), Jamie Catto (of One Giant Leap ), Harry Necklace (of Kubb ), Phil Jones (of Specimen A), Mark Thomas, Lowkey, Michael Rosen, LSK, Andrea Britton, Attab Haddad, Joelle Barker, the Durban Gospel Choir (of South Africa) and members of the London Community Gospel Choir .
  • Spanish singer Paco Ibanez in a newspaper that he will now boycott the Hebrew language , which he can speak, for political reasons. [126]
  • 150 Swiss artists signed an appeal for the cultural boycott of Israel. [127] A group of Indian artists canceled their participation in an exhibition in Israel. [128]
  • The AMARC (international non-governmental organization serving the community radio movement, with almost 3,000 members and associates in 110 countries) joins the BDS campaign. [129]
  • In 2012, Tunisian fence champion Sara Besbes [130] and Iranian chess-master Ehsan Ghaem Maghami [131] boycotted their games to avoid facing Israeli opponents.
  • In November 2012, the American musician Stevie Wonder bowed to intense pressure and canceled his participation in a fundraising concert in support of the Israel Defense Forces . Wonder has been cited as a goodwill representative, and stated, “I am, and always have been, against war, any war, anywhere.” [132] [133] [134]
  • In September 2013, the punk-band Oi Polloi , of Scotland, canceled their appearance in the Norwegian cultural establishment Kapittel , protesting the appearance of the Israeli ambassador to Norway. In a Twitter message, the band announced that “We are not playing with the apologetics of war crimes, torture, illegal occupation, ethnic cleansing and racism.” [135]
  • In January 2014, Norwegian musician Pål Moddi Knutsen canceled his concert in Tel Aviv. [136]
  • In May 2014, Grace Lee Boggs , Danny Glover and 10 others called for a cultural boycott of Israel, saying they “formally stand with the people of Palestine”. [137]
  • In February 2015, a group of seven hundred artists said they would boycott Israel until its “colonial oppression of Palestinians” comes to an end. The group drew a parallel between their decision and the refusal of artists to perform in Apartheid-era South Africa, saying they would not play music, accept awards, expect exhibitions, festivals or conferences in Israeli cities. The group included Brian Eno , Alexei Sayle , Richard Ashcroft , Ahmed Rice , Miriam Margolyes and Ken Loach . [138] [139]

Reception

In August 2001 a 50-strong delegation from the World Council of Churches produced a report calling for a boycott of goods produced by Jewish settlers. The report called on the executive of the WCC to “affirm the legitimacy of Palestinian resistance to injustice and foreign occupation”. [140]

In February 2004 Following a six-month inquiry has select committee presented a postponement to the British parliament calling for the suspension of the European Union’s preferential trade agreement with Israel “until it (Israel) lifts the movement restrictions qui It has Placed on Palestinian trade” . Between 2002 and 2004 the EU exported 30.1 billion worth of goods to Israel while valued at 21.1 billion [141]

Archbishop Desmond Tutu HAS called Expired we the international community to treat Israel as it Treated apartheid South Africa and supports the divestment campaign contre Israel . [142]

Swedish archbishop KG Hammar , ambassador Carl Tham and a list of 71 others have supported a boycott of products from the occupied areas. [143] [144] [145]

A joint open letter by 322 UK academics was published in the Guardian 16 January 2009. The letter called on the British government and the British people to take all possible steps to Israel to stop its “military aggression and colonial occupation” of the Palestinian land and its “criminal use of force”, suggesting to start with a program of boycott, divestment and sanctions. [146]

In 2008, to train Beatles singer Paul McCartney decided to perform in Israel for the country’s 60th anniversary despite a death threat from activist Islamic activist Omar Bakri Muhammad , who said, “If he values ​​his life, Mr McCartney must not come to Israel. The sacrifice operatives will be waiting for him. ” [147] Omar Barghouti, one of the founders of the Palestinian Campaign for the Academic and Cultural Boycott of Israel, described the threat as “deplorable”. [147] McCartney said “I do not know what I think and I have many friends who support Israel.” [147]

In 2008 Sir Gerald Kaufman , British Member of Parliament , “It is time for our government to make clear to the Israeli government that its conduct and policies are unacceptable and to impose a total arms ban on Israel.” [148]

Norman Finkelstein , writing in 2006, said he supports the US Academic Boycott of Israel. [149] and an “economic boycott of Israel”

In February 2012, Finkelstein “launched a blistering attack” of the BDS movement during an interview, saying it was a “hypocritical, dishonest cult” that tries to cleverly pose as human rights activists while in reality their goal is to destroy Israel. [151]</ ref> In addition, he said: “I’m getting a little bit exasperated with what I think is a lot of nonsense.I am not going to tolerate silliness, childishness and a lot of leftist posturing. We will never hear the solidarity movement [back to] two-state solution. ” Moreover, Finkelstein stated that the BDS movement has had very few successes, and that they just like a cult, the leaders pretend that they are hugely successful when in reality the general public rejects their extreme views. He does mention that he supports the idea of ​​a non-violent BDS movement. [151]

In an e-mail dated 15 December 2012, Noam Chomsky defended the tactics as non-anti-Semitic. Although Chomsky believes that any tactic, however legitimate, can be misused, it also remarked that they may be used properly and effectively against state crimes, and in this case of BDS, they regularly have been. [152] In May 2013, Chomsky, along with other professors such as Professor Malcolm Levitt, advised Stephen Hawking to boycott an Israeli conference. [74]

In November 2012, a group of 51 people, including Nobel Peace Laureates, prominent artists and activists published a letter calling for a military embargo on Israel. The letter accused of providing assistance to Israel that facilitated Israel’s 2012 military operation in the Gaza Strip. Nobel peace laureates Mairead Maguire and Adolfo Perez Esquivel were among the group signing the letter. [153]

The Anti-Defamation League , whose mission is to stop the defamation of Jews, has claimed that it is “offensive and biased”, [154] and heads of several major US Jewish organizations have referred to them as “lop-sided” and “unbalanced”. [155]

Boycott calls have also been called “profoundly unjust” and relying on a “false” analogy with the previous apartheid regime of South Africa . One critical statement has been made that the boycotters apply “different standards” to Israel than other countries, that the boycott is “counterproductive and retrograde” yet has no comparability to Nazi boycotts of Jewish shops in the 1930s. [156] [157] [158] [159] [160] [161] [162]

According to a French court appellate court of Colmar, Yet the Court of Cassation , the highest criminal court of appeal in France. [163] [164]

The Economist contends that the boycott is “flimsy” and ineffective, that “blaming Israel alone for the impasse in the occupied territories will continue to strike out as many outsiders,” and points out that Palestinian leadership does not support the boycott. [165]

In an op-ed published in The Jerusalem Post in November 2010, Gerald Steinberg and Jason Edelstein contend That while “the need to refute Their [BDS organisms] allegations is clear, students and community groups must aussi adopted a proactive strategy to Undermine The Credibility and influence of these groups BDS is a grassroots protesting against Israeli policies, exposing their abuses and funding sources will change the dynamic in this battle. ” [166]In an effort to fight BDS, in March 2011, NGO Monitorproduced “the BDS Sewer System” intended to provide detailed information about boycott campaigns against Israel. [167]

After the post-punk group PiL went to Tel Aviv to headline the Heineken Music Conference 2010 Festival in August 2010, British musician John Lydon responded by saying: “If Elvis-fucking-Costello wants to pull out of a gig in Israel because he’s suddenly gotten this compassion for Palestinians, but good on him.American country, with a democracy, I will not understand how anyone can have a problem they’re treated. ” [168]

Martin Raffel, who oversees the Israel Action Network, argued in March 2011 that Israel’s supporters can respectfully debate artists who choose to boycott the West Bank town of Ariel , but “not recognizing Israel as a Jewish democratic state is a completely different story”. [169]

In October 2010, the Cape Town Opera (CTO) declined an appeal by Desmond Tutu to cancel a tour of Israel. [170] The CTO Stated que le company was “reluctant to adopt the Essentially political position of disengagement from cultural ties with Israel or with Palestine, [170] and That They HAD-been in negotiations for four years and Would respect the contract. [171 ]

Gene Simmons , lead singer of Kiss , said that artists who avoid Israel-such as Elvis Costello, the Pixies and Roger Waters-would be better served than they are at Arab dictators. “The countries they should be boycotting are the same countries that people are rebelling,” he said. [172]

Other Umberto Eco [173] and film makersJoel and Ethan Coen. [174] Many musicians such as Elton John , Leonard Cohen , Lady Gaga , Rihanna , Metallica , Editors , Placebo , LCD Soundsystem, , upon being awarded the Jerusalem Prize, was said to be “If I only went to countries that I approve of, I would probably never get out of bed …. It’s not great if everyone stops talking. ” [173]MGMT, Justin Bieber, Madonna, Paul McCartney, Ziggy Marley,[175]Red Hot Chili Peppers, Mark Ronson, Depeche Mode, Gilberto Gil, Daniela Mercury, Rolling Stones,[176][177] Alicia Keys,[173][178] Tom Jones,[179] Eric Burdon,[180] and Bon Jovi[181] have chosen to perform in Israel in recent years. Novelist Ian McEwan

The Irish Dance Production Riverdance performed in Israel in 2011, despite requests that it boycott Israel. The group stated that “Riverdance supports the policy of the Irish Government and the policy of every other state of affairs. [182]

Reverend Jim Barr, president of the Palestine Advocacy Network, while supporting the boycott, divestment and sanctions campaign against Israel, disagreed with the protest action at Israeli-owned by Max Brenner , Australia, saying, “that stuff just discredits the whole movement . ” [183]

In 2010, Noam Chomsky was interviewed about the boycott movement against Israel. He said that he is still well-targeted, and he calls them hypocritical. According to Chomsky, boycotting Israeli settlements or arms sales made sense of calling for a boycott of anything Israeli, or demanding for the Right of Return , would be hypocritical and play into the hands of hardliners in the United States and Israel. [184]In July 2014, Noam Chomsky warns that the boycott, divestment, and sanctions can not be prevented by the Palestinian Authority because of the demand for a “right of return”. He also said “If we boycott Tel Aviv University because Israel violates human rights at home, then why not boycott Harvard because of greater violations by the United States?” [185]

In October 2011, Izzat Abdulhadi, Head of the General Delegation of Palestine to Australia, said that he is against the “full-scale” BDS campaign, and in particular at the time of the protracted protests at the Max Brenner stores in Australia, saying , “BDS is a non-violent process and I do not think it is the right of anybody to use BDS as a violent action or to prevent people from buying from any place.” [186]

Madonna ‘s The MDNA Tour began in May 2012 in Tel Aviv , Israel . [187] She said that the concert in Tel Aviv was a “peace concert,” and was offered to Israeli and Palestinian groups, but this offer was sponsored by Anarchists Against the Wall and the Sheikh Jarrah Solidarity group. One activist said “no one is talking about dismantling the privileged regime or of ending the occupation.” “They talk about peace and a philosophical thing, they’re going in that direction.” The offer is accepted by the Palestinian-Israeli Peace NGO Forum. [188]Madonna’s performance was criticized by a group called “Boycott from Within” as “a blatant attempt at whitewashing Israeli crimes” and Omar Barghouti said that “by performing in Israel, Madonna has consciously and shamefully slow her name to fig-leafing Israel’s occupation and apartheid and shown her obliviousness to human rights. ” [189]

Ed Husain, writing in the New York Times , says that the boycott of Israel should end, since it is hurting the Palestinians more than helping them. Husain believes that “the voice of the Palestinian people who wants to see the boycott needs to be amplified”, as well as those “religious leaders” in Egypt and in Saudi Arabia who “advocate peace”. [190]

In January 2014, Scarlett Johansson started to promote SodaStream , an Israeli company operating in Ma’ale Adumim , a West Bank settlement, which sparked criticism from Oxfam . In response to Oxfam after eight years, she said, “she has a fundamental difference of opinion with Oxfam in regards to the boycott, divestment and sanctions movement”. SodaStream plant employs both Palestinians and Israelis and the company says it is a model of peaceful cooperation. [191]

In February 2014, Israeli Ambassador to the UK Daniel Taub said in a CNN interview that proponents of a boycott on Israeli goods are making a “mistake” and sending a “problematic” message to Palestinian negotiators: “If they genuinely want to advance peace, what they’re really doing is they’re sending a double message … They’re sending a message to the Palestinian that [they] don’t need to be sitting at the negotiating table.”[192]

In October 2015, JK Rowling was one of the 150 people of the British world who signed a letter against the call for a boycott of Israel that was made in February. The signatories of the letter said “cultural boycotts singling out” are “divisive and discriminatory,” and “will not further peace.” of the conflict. ” Some of the signatories are closely aligned with Israel, for example via the Conservative Friends of Israel and the Labor Friends of Israel . [193] [194] [195]

United States government response

In the United States, the Export Administration Act, arguing, and in some circumstances, prohibiting US companies and individuals from further supporting the boycott of Israel. The Department of Commerce ‘s Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) is responsible for penalties are Imposed for each “knowing” violation with fines of up to $ 50,000 or five times the value of the export Involved, whichever is Greater, and s doing of up to five years.

During the mid-1970s the United States adopted two laws that seek to counteract the participation of US citizens in other nations’ economic boycotts or embargoes. These “antiboycott” laws are the 1977 amendments to the Export Administration Act (EAA) and the Ribicoff Amendment to the Tax Reform Act of 1976 (TRA). While these laws share a common purpose, there are distinctions in their administration.

The United States does not sanction the United States does not sanction the United States does not sanction. They have the effect of preventing US firms from being used to implementing foreign policy.

The Arab League boycott of Israel is the main foreign economic boycott that US companies must be concerned with today. The antiboycott laws, however, apply to all boycotts by the United States.

The provisions of the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) apply to the activities of US persons in the interstate or foreign trade of the United States. The term “US person” includes all individuals, corporations and unincorporated associations resident in the United States, including the permanent domestic affiliates of foreign concerns. US citizens include the United States (except when they reside abroad and are employed by non-US persons) and the controlled affiliates of domestic concerns. The test for “controlled in fact” is the ability to establish the general policies of the foreign affiliate. [196]

The scope of the EAR, as defined by Section 8 of the EAA, is limited to actions taken with intent to comply with, further, or support an unsanctioned foreign boycott.

What do the laws prohibit?

Conduct that may be criminalized under the EAR includes: [197]

  • Agreements to refuse or actual refusal to do business with or in Israel or with blacklisted companies
  • Agreements to discriminate against discrimination against other persons based on race, religion, sex, national origin or nationality.
  • Agreements to furnish or actual furnishing of information on business relationships with or in Israel or with blacklisted companies.
  • Agreements to furnish or actual furnishing of information about the race, religion, sex, or national origin of another person.

Implementing letters of credit with a prohibited boycott terms or conditions.

The TRA does not “prohibit” conduct, but denies tax benefits (“penalizes”) for certain types of boycott-related agreements.

What must be reported?

The EAR requires US persons to report to a certain extent, and to support them. [196]

The TRA requires taxpayers to report “operations” in, with, or related to a boycotting country or their nationals and requests to participate in an international boycott. The Treasury Department publishes a quarterly list of “boycotting countries.”

Penalties

The Export Administration Act (EAA) specified penalties for violations of the Antiboycott Regulations. These can include:

Criminal

The penalties imposed for each “knowing” violation can be a fine of up to $ 50,000, whichever is greater, and imprisonment of up to five years. During periods when the Executive Order of the International Emergency Economic Powers Act , the criminal penalties for each “willful” violation may be $ 50,000 and imprisonment for up to ten years. [196]

administrative

For each violation of the EAR, any of the following may be imposed:

  • General denial of export privileges;
  • The imposition of fines of up to $ 11,000 per violation; and / or
  • Exclusion from practice.

Boycott agreements under the heading of the foreign tax benefits discussed above.

When the EAA is in lapse, penalties for violation of the Antibiotic Regulations are governed by the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (IEEPA). The IEEPA Enhancement Act provides for penalties of up to $ 250,000 per violation, or twice the value of the transaction for administrative violations of Antiboycott Regulations, and up to $ 1 million and 20 years imprisonment for violation of criminal anti-boycott violations. [196]

Israeli government response

Main article: Law for Prevention of Damage to Israel by Boycott

On 11 July 2011, the Israeli Knesset passed a law that makes the call for a boycott on Israel or Israeli settlements to a civilian wrong. 47 members of the Knesset voted in favor and 38 against. [198] Common lawwork allows[199][200]targets of announced boycotts to persons and organisations that promote them, without having to first prove they were harmed by the boycott. The law also allows the Israeli government to deny contracts and withdraw financial support to those who promote boycotts. The law does not create any criminal offences or criminal sanctions.[201]

The law was heavily criticized in Israel by both left wing and Arab political parties. Israeli leftist and human rights organizations also criticized the law, and launched a public campaign against it. [202] Prior to the law’s approval, Reuters Rivlin , Justice Minister Yaakov Neeman , and Finance Minister Yuval Steinitz . After the law was passed, the far-left Gush Shalom movement petitioned the Supreme Court, claiming that the law violated basic democratic principles. The Supreme Court has given the Israeli government 60 days to respond. needs update ]Thirty-four law professors signed a petition against the law to be forwarded to Attorney-General Yehuda Weinstein . [203] [204]

The Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu has been rejected by the Prime Minister and has rejected the bill. He also criticized Kadima party members who initially supported the bill and later opposed its final version, accusing them of folding to pressure. [205]

Australian government response

Though Israeli chocolate company Max Brenner is Targeted by Australian Some Palestinian activists, the Australian Minister for Foreign Affairs and train Prime Minister Kevin Rudd Said, “I do not think in 21st-century Australia there is a place for the boycott of a Jewish Attempted business. ” [206]

Senior figures in the Australian Labor Party are related to the Australian Greens at a state conference, where the Greens were denied automatic preferences, to the Greens’ previous support for the BDS movement. Former New South Wales treasurer and Australian Labor Party general secretary Eric Roozendaal and fellow Legislative Councilor Walt Secord , Stated, “The Greens will carry forever the stain of Their Support for the BDS campaign and Their Attempts to delegitimized Israel and the Jewish community-and this is one of the reasons why we must stand against the Greens. ” [207]

In April 2013, Prime Minister Julia Gillard said that the “campaign does not serve the cause of peace and diplomacy for agreement on a two-state solution between Israel and Palestine,” and added that Australia has always had a firm opposition to the BDS movement. [208] Representing the Coalition Prior to the 2013 Federal Election , Liberal Party deputy leader Julie Bishop reaffirmed Gillard’s stance by promising to cut off federal grants for individuals and institutions who support the BDS campaign. On May 29, 2013, Jewish Australian academics Andrew BenjaminMichele Grossman and David Goodman condemned the Coalition’s election promise as “an anti-democratic gesture par excellence”. [209]

French supreme court verdict

On 22 May 2012, the Supreme Court (one of the French Final Appeals courts) Ruled That Publicly calling for a boycott of Israeli products deriving their incitement and discrimination based one nationality. The verdict by the Court of Cassation was the final verdict in a lengthy legal battle, which consisted of a series of convictions, acquittals, and appeals. [163] French lawyer Michael Ghnassia wrote that the Israelis, and is therefore “based on a racial, religious or national criterion and rather than one.” a simple opinion, is a discriminatory action “. [210]

United Kingdom

A UK court dismissed in 2013 claims that the University and College Union was institutionally anti-Semitic due to motions it had passed in favor of a boycott of Israel. The judgment, by an employment tribunal, was strongly critical of the claims, referring to the “impermissible attempt to achieve a political end by litigious means” and displaying “worrying disregard for pluralism, tolerance and freedom of expression”. [211]

In 2017 a UK Administrative Court ruled the British government had acted unlawfully in implementing regulations that sought to limit divestment campaigns against Israeli companies. [212]

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