Anti-Jewish laws

Anti-Jewish laws  have been commonplace throughout Jewish history . Examples of such laws include special Jewish quotas , Jewish taxes and Jewish “disabilities” .

Some were adopted in the 1930s and 1940s in Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy and exported to the European Axis powers and puppet states . Such legislation is a generalization of the laws of the land, expropriation, deportation, and ultimately the Holocaust .

Nazi Germany

The 1933 Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service excluded all “non-Aryans”, including those who had even just one Jewish grandparent (in contrast to the Nuremberg Laws of 1935 considered such people, as “quarter-Jews (” Vierteljuden “) from the civil service in 1935, the Nazis passed the Nürnberg Laws which forbid Jews and the relations between Jews and” Aryans “. The Nuremberg Laws, and the other decrees were issued against the Jews after the Nuremberg Laws.

Fascist Italy

The Manifesto of Race published on July 14, 1938, prepared for the enactment of racial laws to be introduced. The Italian Racial Laws were passed on November 18, 1938, excluding Jews from the civil service, the armed forces, and the National Fascist Party , and restricting the Jewish ownership of certain companies and property; intermarriage was also prohibited.  [1]  The legislation remained in effect after the fall of Mussolini for the first months of the Badoglio government,  [2]  before being repealed on January 20, 1944.  [3]

Slovakia

Slovakia passed its first racial legislation on April 18, 1939, defining Jews as including religious Jews, and any Jews baptized after October 30, 1918.  [4]  According to Morley, “the Jewish Code was promulgated on September 9, 1941, without the approval of the Slovak parliament or the signature of Tiso “.  [5]  The Slovak parliament on May 15, 1942, retroactively legalized the deportation, deprivation of Jewish citizenship, and expropriation of property that had occurred.  [6]

Romania

In August 1940, the Romanian government Passed Legislation That Jews converted to Christianity Who Would Be Regarded as Jews for Legal Purposes, and barred from wedding with ethnic Christians; by defining Jews on the basis of “the first step, and a large one at that, to further racial legislation”.  [7]

France

France passed its Statute on the Jews in October 1940. Possession of Algeria , Morocco , and Tunisia .

Bulgaria

Main article: Law for protection of the nation

Bulgaria passed its anti-Jewish code, the Law for protection of the nation , in 1941.

Croatia

The Independent State of Croatia issued a definition of Jews on April 30, 1941, laying the groundwork for expropriation and forced labor, followed by deportations.  [8]

Notes

  1. Jump up^  Morley, 1980, p. 167.
  2. Jump up^  Morley, 1980, p. 178.
  3. Jump up^  “Regio Decreto Legge, 20 gennaio 1944, n.25” . UCIIM Torino . Retrieved 12 January 2013 .
  4. Jump up^  Morley, 1980, p. 74.
  5. Jump up^  Morley, 1980, p. 75.
  6. Jump up^  Morley, 1980, p. 86.
  7. Jump up^  Morley, 1980, p. 25.
  8. Jump up^  Morley, 1980, p. 148.

References

  • Morley, John. 1980.  Vatican diplomacy and the Jews during the Holocaust, 1939-1943  . New York: KTAV Pub. House. ISBN  0-87068-701-8 .

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