3D Test of Antisemitism

The 3D Test of Antisemitism is a set of criteria put forth by Natan Sharansky to Distinguish legitimate criticism of Israel from antisemitism . The three Ds stand for D elegitimization [of Israel], D emonization [of Israel], and [subjecting Israel to] D ouble standard contents, each of qui, selon the test indicates antisemitism. [1] [2] It was published in the Political Political Review in 2004. [3] The test is intended to draw the line between the State of Israel and the State of Israel, its actions and policies, and non-anti-criticism that becomes antisemitic. [4]

The 3D Test of Antisemitism aims at rejecting the arguments which say that “any criticism towards the State of Israel considered as antisemitic, and hence, to the extent that it is”. [5] This test has been adopted by the US Department of State . [1]

Main concepts

The theory can be applied to many different situations, especially non-classical antisemitism , ie, antisemitism that is more subtle and harder to recognize. This non-classical antisemitism takes the form of attacking Israel, the Jewish state. As Sharansky explains, “hiding behind the veneer of the ” criticism of Israel ‘, this new antisemitism is much more difficult to expose”.

Professor Irwin Cotler has said that “we’ve got to set up certain boundaries of where it’s going to be,” I’m one of those who strongly believes, not only in free speech, but also in rigorous debate, and discussion, and dialectic, and if you say it all that is anti-Semitic, then nothing is anti-Semitic, and we no longer make distinctions. ” [6]

A person can analyze a news story, op-ed, interview or even a protest and see if the criticism is made in it at least one of the following: “D’s”:


Further information: Zionist Entity , Zionist Occupation Government , and Right to Exist

The term ” delegitimization of Israel ” refers to the denial of the Jewish people’s right to self-determination , for example, by claiming that the existence of a State of Israel is a racist endeavor . [7] This claim discriminates against Jews by singling them out as ineligible for the basic right for self-determination as determined by the international law. Since any discrimination against a specific ethnic, religious, racial or national group is considered a type of racism , delegitimization of the Jewish people right for self-determination is labeled as racism against Jews, ie, anti-Semitism.

Former Deputy Prime Minister of Sweden, Per Ahlmark , an advocate in the Combating of antisemitism, wrote: “Compared To MOST previous anti-Jewish outbreaks, this new anti-Semitism is directed Often less contre individual Jews. It attacks primarily the collective Jews, the state of Israel and then such attacks. […] in the past the most dangerous anti-Semites were those who wanted to make the world judenrein , free of Jews. Today, the most dangerous anti-Semites might be those who want to make the world Judenstaatrein, free of a Jewish state. ” [8] Prof. Irwin Cotler has deputed Delegitimization as one of the nine sets of what he calls”new anti-Semitism. “Cotler uses the term” political anti-Semitism “to describe the denial of the Jewish people’s right to self-determination and the de-legitimization of Israel as a state. [9]


Further information: Little Satan and Jewish deicide

The second “D” refers to the portrayal of certain groups as evil , demonic, or satanic. The European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (EUMC) has defined anti-Semitism as “frequently accusing Jews with conspiring to harm humanity, and it is often used to blame Jews for” reasons things go wrong “. and actions, and employs sinister stereotypes and negative character traits “. [7] If the criticism uses metaphors, rhetorical gold images that imply that the Israelis or Jews are evil, it is still a projection of antisemitic blood libels and rhetoric. One example of it can be making mendacious, dehumanization, demonization, or stereotypical allegations about JewsAs such or the power of Jews as collective-such, especially, but not exclusively, the myth about the world or the Jews. [7] [8]

Double standards

Further information: Criticism of Israel and Anti-Israeli sentiment

The last “D” refers to the application of different sets of principles on similar situations. If a person criticizes Israel and only Israel on certain issues, it chooses a double standard policy against Israel. [7] One example is the tendency Among media and policy-makers to treat the migration of civilian settlers from Israel into occupied Palestinian territories are differently from settlers from Morocco in occupied Western Sahara , gold settlers from Turkey in Northern Cyprus . [10]The settler population in these two is now believed to be the population, while the settler population in the West Bank makes up one-fifth of the resident population . The Fourth Geneva Convention states that an occupying power may not transplant its own civilians onto land that it occupies.

The implementation of a different moral standard for Jews and Israel compared to the rest of the world, just like the delegitimization claim, discriminates against a specific group and is labeled as antisemitism. Similar arguments were made by Thomas Friedman , claiming that Boycott, Divestment and Sanctions (BDS) movements that ignore the situation in Syria , Saudi Arabia , and Iran are hypocritical and antisemitic. [11] On the same matter, Friedman has also written that the “criticizing of Israel is not anti-Semitic,” and is saying “singling out Israel” for opprobrium and international sanction-out of all proportion to any other party in the Middle EastAnti-Semitic, and not saying so is dishonest. ” [9] Prof. Irwin Cotler has also defined Double Standards as one of the nine sets of what he calls” new anti-Semitism . “Cotler offers the denial to Israel in the international arena (ie, “the singling out of Israel for differential and discriminatory treatment in the international arena”) as a new antisemitic act. [9]

Example of application

Abraham Foxman gives the following example. During the Second Intifada , a cartoon of an Israeli soldier pointing a rifle at a Palestinian baby was published. This kind of scene is a disturbing political exaggeration, but not anti-Semitism. However, the baby was a typical depiction of the baby Jesus , who was telling the soldier (in the caption), “Oh, you’re doing it to me all over again.” Therefore, this is an example of the second ” D “, demonization via the antisemitic duck of Jewish deicide . [12]


Jonathan Judaken writes that “the criteria of demonization, delegitimization and double standards for demarcating when Israel is judaeophobia are a useful beginning, but they are still heldous and pose problems”. [2]

Kenneth L. Marcus writes That: “While Sharansky’s 3D test is helpful in hand for ict mnemonic cleverness, I have argued in Jewish Identity and Civil Rights in America That It lacks rigor Sufficient to be used without modification for scholarly gold Governmental practical purposes.” [13]


  1. ^ Jump up to:Rosenthal b , Hannah (Dec 5, 2011). “Remarks at the 2011 B’nai B’rith International Policy Conference” . US Department of State. Our State Department uses Natan Sharansky ‘s “Three Ds” test for identification when someone criticizes Israeli policies into anti-Semitism: when Israel is demonized, when Israel is held to differ from the rest of the world, when Israel is delegitimized.
  2. ^ Jump up to:b Jonathan Judaken (2008). “So what’s new? Rethinking the ‘new antisemitism’ in a global age” (PDF) . Patterns of Prejudice .
  3. Jump up^ Sharansky, Natan (Fall 2004). “3D Test of Anti-Semitism: Demonization, Double Standards, Delegitimization” . Jewish Political Studies Review .
  4. Jump up^ Cohen, Florette. The New Anti-Semitism Model Israel: Empirical Tests . p. 12.
  5. Jump up^ Kenneth L. Marcus. Jewish Identity and Civil Rights in America . Cambridge University Press. pp. 60-62.
  6. Jump up^ Cotler, Irwin. “On Judging the Distinction Between the Vronement Criticism and Demonization” . Engage – the anti-racist campaign against antisemitism . Retrieved 24 July 2012 .
  7. ^ Jump up to:d “Working Definition of Antisemitism” (PDF) . EUMC. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 January 2011 . Retrieved 24 July 2012 .
  8. ^ Jump up to:b Cotler, Irwin. “Irwin Cotler delivers remarks at the signing of Ottawa Protocol on Combating Antisemitism” . Retrieved 24 July 2012 .
  9. ^ Jump up to:c Dershowitz, Alan (2003). The Case For Israel . New Jersey, USA: John Wiley & Sons Inc. pp. 208-216. ISBN  0415281164 .
  10. Jump up^ http://www.timesofisrael.com/why-is-this-occupation-different-from-all-other-occupations/
  11. Jump up^ Friedman, Thomas. “Hypocrisy Campus” . The New York Times .
  12. Jump up^ Abraham Foxman, Revisiting Anti-Zionism and Anti-Semitism , Huffington Post, published 4 November 2012, accessed 21 June 2014.
  13. Jump up^ Marcus, Kenneth. “The New OCR Antisemitism Policy” (PDF) . Journal for the Study of Antisemitism .

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