Yakub (Nation of Islam)



Yakub (sometimes spelled Yacub or Yaqub ) is a figure in the beliefs of the Nation of Islam (NOI). According to their beliefs, Yakub was a black scientist who lived “6,600 years ago” and started the creation of the white race . He is said to have done this through a “grafting”, while living on the island of Patmos . Scientific consensus rejects the historicity of this figure.

The Nation of Islam theology states that Yakub is the biblical Jacob . Sunni and Shia Muslims are not affiliated with the Nation of Islam reject this belief. The story has its arguments within the NOI during its history. Under the current leader Louis Farrakhan , the NOI continues to assert that the story of Yakub is true, stating that modern science is consistent with it.

The story

The story of Yakub was originated in the writings of Wallace Fard Muhammad , the founder of the Nation of Islam, in his doctrinal Q & A pamphlet Lost Found Moslem Lesson No. 2 . [1] It was developed by His successor Elijah Muhammad in Several writings, Most fully in a chapter Entitled “The Making of Devil ‘In His book Message to the Blackman in America . [2]

Yakub is said to be born in Mecca at a time when 30% of original black people were “dissatisfied”. [3] He was a member of the Meccan branch of the Tribe of Shabazz . Yakub acquired the nickname “big head”, because of his unusually large head and his arrogance. At the age of six, he discovered the law of attraction and repulsion by playing with magnets made of steel . [4] This insight led to a plan to create new people. He “saw an unlike human being, made to attract others, who could, with the knowledge of tricks and lies, rule the original black man.” [4]By the age of 18, he had exhausted all knowledge in the universities of Mecca. He then discovered that the “original black man” contained both a “black germ” and a “brown germ”. With 59,999 followers, he went to an “island in the Aegean Sea called Pelan”, which Muhammad identified with Patmos . Once there, he has established a despotic regime and set about breeding the black traits, killed all darker babies, and created a brown race after 200 years. Yakub died at the age of 152, but his followers carried on his work. After 600 years of this deliberate eugenics, the white race was created. [5]The brutal conditions of their creation determined the evil nature of the new race: “by lying to the black mother of the baby, this one is born into the very nature of the white baby; them – or made by nature to liar and murderer “. [2]

The new race traveled to Mecca where they caused so much trouble they were exiled to “West Asia (Europe), and stripped of everything but the language …. Once there, they were roped in, to keep them out of paradise. ..The soldiers patrolled the frontier with swords, to prevent the devils from crossing. ” [2] For many centuries they lived a barbaric life, but eventually they were drawn out of the caves by Moses who “taught them to wear clothes”. Moses tried to civilize them, but eventually gave up 300 of the most troublesome of them with dynamite . [6]However, they have learned to use “tricknology” to usurp power and enslave the black population, bringing the first slaves to America. According to the Autobiography of Malcolm X , Yakub’s (spelled Yacub in the biography) work, as the “red, yellow and brown” races were created during the “bleaching” process; [3] However , the “black race” included Asian peoples, considered to be the ancestors of the Moors . “Whites” were defined as Europeans. Elijah Muhammad also asserted that some of the new white race “to graft themselves back into the black nation, but they had nothing to go by.” As a result, they became gorillas. “A few are lucky enough to make a start, and they have gotten away with the gorilla.” In fact, “All of the monkeys are in this year of the white race in Europe.” [2]

According to NOI doctrine, Yakub’s progeny was destined to rule for 6,000 years before the original black peoples of the world regained dominance, a process that had begun in 1914. [7] [8] [9]

Yakub and Jacob

The name Ya`qub (Yakub) is the Arabic variant of the name of the Biblical Patriarch known as Jacob in English language versions of the Bible , and as Ya’aqob in Biblical Hebrew . Muhammad’s Fard Yakub has some parallels to the Biblical Jacob’s role as the father of the tribes of Israel . The idea that Jews were an “artificial race” created by interbreeding and dependent on “tricks and lies” already existed in anti-semitic theories of the time. [10] The story of Yakub includes Jews as part of a wider artificially created “white” race.[11]

The NOI’s claim that Jacob is a genetically modified person. Genesis 30: 37-43 Where do you find Jacobs in his uncle Laban’s flocks . This story could be the origin of the NOI’s story of Yakub. One major difference is that while NOI says that Yakub employed selective breeding, Jacob used sympathetic magic in the Old Testament.

In speeches by Malcolm X, Yakub is identified completely with Jacob. Referring to the story of Jacob wrestling with the angel , Malcolm X states that Elijah Muhammad told him that “Jacob was Yacub, and the angel that Jacob wrestled with was not God, it was the government of the day”. This is because Yakub was seeking funds for his expedition to Patmos, “so when it says” wrestled with an angel “,” angel “was only used to” wrestling with “. However, Malcolm X also states that John of Patmos was also Yakub, and that the Book of Revelation refers to his deeds: “John was Yacub, John was out there getting ready to make a new race, he said, for the word of the Lord. ” [12]

Sources

One of the Olmec heads claim to the existence of a large-headed “Negro race” in America

Ernest Allen argues that “the Yakub myth may have been created by Prophet Fard”, but could not have been influenced by a real historical event during the struggle between Muslims and Christians for control of Spain. Muslim leader Abu Yusuf Yaqub al-Mansur defeated the Franks at the Battle of Alarcos (1195). After the battle 40,000 European prisoners of war were taken to Yaqub’s building projects. Fez and Marrakesh: “We are now set to a settlement between Fez and Marrakesh.” On his deathbed Ya’qub lamented his decision to allow these Shibanis (as they came to be called) to form an enclave on Moroccan soil, thus posing a potential threat to the stability of the Moorish empire. ”

Yusuf Nuruddin says that it was more the source of the “Yacobites” propounded by Timothy Drew ‘s Moorish Science Temple , to which he had probably belonged before he was found to be NOI. According to Drew, early pre-Columbian civilizations were founded by a West African Moor “named Yakub who landed on the Yucatan Peninsula”. [13] This derived from the then-current term que la gigantic heads created by the ancient Olmec peoples of the Yucatan area had “negroid” features (see Olmec alternative origin speculations ), qui HAD LED Leo Wiener to argue That They Were migrants from West Africa. [14]

They [Drew ‘s followers] said that the big stones are going to be the most important things in the world. This legend of Yakub – a bigheaded scientist – finds its way into the mythology of the Nation of Islam, indicating that the founders of the NOI, WD Farrad and Elijah Muhammad, were influenced by the Moorish Science Temple, and were possibly even members. [13]

Harold Bloom in his book The American Religion argues that Yakub combines elements of the biblical God and the Gnostic concept of the Demiurge , saying that “Yakub has an irksome memorability as a punitive pungent Gnostic Demiurge”. [15] Nathaniel Deutsch also notes that Fard and Muhammad draw on the concept of the Demiurge, along with traditions of esotericism in Biblical interpretation, absorbing aspects of Biblical tales to the new narrative, such as the warriors of the white warriors devils “from Paradise, like the flaming sword of the angel protecting the Garden of Eden in Genesis. [2]Edward Curtis calls the story “a black theodicy: a story grounded in a mythological view of the history of the fall of black civilization, the Middle Passage of Africa to the Americas, and the practice of Christian religion among slaves and their descendants.” [16]

Several commentators state the story, by associating blacks with ancient high civilizations and whites with cave-dwelling barbarians and gorillas, both uses and spectacularly reverses the populist and scientific racism of the era as identified Africans as primitive, or closer to apes than whites. This article is only available in French. of European savagery in the Middle Ages that were so pervasive in nineteenth-century black racial thought. ” [17]Deutsch says that “Muhammad anchored his radical doctrine within the context of an established scriptural tradition” of Biblical exegesis, which “was therefore a sophisticated form of resistance to white racism”. [2] In addition, “the long-standing Western tradition of identifying darkness and darkness with evil is dramatically reversed”. [18]

Role in the Nation of Islam

The doctrine of Yakub was one of the reasons for splits in the Nation of Islam. Malcolm X in his autobiography notes that, in his travels in the Middle East , many Muslims reacted with shock on hearing about the doctrine of Yakub, which, while present in NOI theology, does not appear in mainstream Islam. page needed ] He rejected the story in his later statements, asserting that anyone of any race who intentionally deprives others of basic human rights is a “devil”. [19] Warith Deen Muhammad , who took over the Nation of Islam after his father Elijah’s death rejected it, and tried to re-invent the Nation as a mainstream Sunni Islam movement.

Louis Farrakhan reinstated the original Nation of Islam, and has reasserted his belief in the literal truth of the story of Yakub. In a 1996 interview, Henry Louis Gates , Chairman of Harvard University’s Afro-American Studies Department, asked about whether the story was a metaphor or literal. Farrakhan has claimed that it has been brought to the fore by the fact that it is a very real scientist. to say. ” [20] Farrakhan’s periodical The Final Call continues to argue that modern science supports the accuracy of Elijah Muhammad’s account of Yakub. [21]

In culture

Drama

The African-American author and playwright Amiri Baraka’s play A Black Mass (1965) takes inspiration from the story of Yakub. [22] According to critic Melani McAlister, “the character of Yakub, now called Jacoub, is introduced to one of the three Black Magicians who symbolize the origin of all religions.” McAlister argues that,

Baraka turns the Nation’s myth into a reinterpretation of the Faust story and a simultaneous meditation on the role and function of art. As with Faust, Jacoub’s individualism and egotism are his undoing, but his failings also signal the destruction of a community. Baraka’s version of the story also draws on the Frankenstein tale; he is one of the six hundred years of Elijah Muhammad’s “history” in a single, terrible moment of the creation of a monster. [23]

In Baraka’s version of the experiment creates a single Frankenstein-like “white” monster who kills Jacoub and the other magician-scientists and a woman, transforming her into a vampire-like way into a white-devil mate for himself. From this monstrous couple the white race is descended. [23]

Rap

According to Charise L. Cheney, the doctrine of Yakub has had a significant influence in rap culture, referring to raps by Kam and Grand Puba .

This pseudoscientific theory of racial formation was embraced by rap Nationalists like educated Ice Cube protected Kam in his 1995 song “Keep tha Peace.” A self-proclaimed member of the Nation, Kam presented organizational doctrine as a way to explain the roots of black- On Violence and Violence In America’s inner cities: “I’m really not knowin ‘who blame or fault / for this tension / I mention this gump / Yakub’s cavey / the blue-eyed punk / playin’ both sides against each other / now that’s the real mutha [fuckah]. “… In 1990 Great Puba of Brand Nubian announced that his calling was to bring people back to the world. … “Here comes the god to send the devil back to his cave … We’re gonna drop the bomb on the Yakub crew. [24]

Chuck D of Public Enemy also refers to the story in his “Party for Your Right to Fight”, referring to the Yakub story by attributing the deaths of African American radicals to the “grafted devils” conspiring against the “Black Asiatic Man.” . [24]

Method Man of the Wu-Tang Clan promotes the story of Yakub in the Ol ‘Dirty Bastard’s song “Raw Hide,” saying: “A mystery god that’s the work of Yacub / The Holy Ghost got you scared to death kid boo! “. In the Wu-Tang Clan ‘s hit song ” Gravel Pit ” at the end of it, can be heard a movie movie Short Eyes which says about Yakub: ” Yakub, maker and creator of the devil Swine merchant Fuck with me and your time will be your presence in the heart of the world. You, Yakub, are the bearer of nine thousand and ninety nine diseases, evil, corrupt, porkchop-eatin ‘brain!

Wu-Tang member Ghostface Killah also references the story of Yakub in his song “One” from his album Supreme Clientele . He raps: “A-yo, the Devil planted fear inside the black babies.” He concludes the verse with: “Dead meat placed on the shelves, we eat cold cuts / Fast from the hog y’all and grow up,” [25] advocating the NOI’s best practice of avoiding pork [26] [ better source needed ] .

Nas raps “You’ll be back in the caves you came from” in his song “Message To The Feds, Sincerely, We’re The People” from his album Street’s Disciple .

We have freestyle to We’re Kings ‘ song “We Made It”, Jay Electronica says “All these devils, I got to strike some” and Jay Z says “I’m ready to chase the Yakub back into caves”.

References

  1. ^ Jump up to:b Allen, Ernest, “Identity and Destiny: The Formative Views of the Moorish Science Temple and the Nation of Islam” in Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad; John L. Esposito, Muslims on the Americanization Path? Oxford University Press, 2000, p.192 (footnote, p.213).
  2. ^ Jump up to:f Deutsch, Nathaniel, “The Other Proximate the Nation of Islam and Judaism,” in Black Zion: African American Religious Encounters with Judaism , Oxford University Press, 2000, pp.104-108
  3. ^ Jump up to:b Nelson, Alondra, “A Black Mass as Black Gothic: Myth and Biosacience in Black Cultural Nationalism” in Lisa Gail Collins, Margo Crawford, New Thoughts on the Black Arts Movement , Rutgers University Press, 2006, p .140-141.
  4. ^ Jump up to:b Michael Angelo Gomez, Black Crescent: The Experience and Legacy of African Muslims in the Americas , Cambridge University Press, 2005, p.311
  5. Jump up^ Elijah Muhammad,Message to the Blackman in America(Summarizedhere) andYakub: The Father of Mankind. See also, Dorothy Blake Fardan,Yakub and the Origins of White Supremacy, Lushena Books, 2001
  6. Jump up^ Elijah Muhammad,Message to the Blackman in America, Elijah Muhammad Books, 1973, p.120.
  7. Jump up^ Abraham / Mr. Yakub, NOI.com
  8. Jump up^ Raelist Admissiom Messenger from Allah
  9. Jump up^ Messenger Elijah Muhammad. “The Making of Devil” . Archived from the original on 23 February 2012.
  10. Jump up^ Linda L. Clark,Social Darwinism in France, University of Alabama Press, 1984, p.150
  11. Jump up^ Colin Kidd,The Forging of Races: Race and Scripture in the Protestant Atlantic World, 1600-2000, Cambridge University Press, 2006, p. 268.
  12. Jump up^ Malcolm X, Benjamin Karim,The End of White World Supremacy: Four Speeches by Malcolm X, Arcade Publishing, 1989, PP. 53-4
  13. ^ Jump up to:b Nuruddin, Yusuf, “African-American Muslims and the Question of Identity Between Traditional Islam, African Heritage, and the American Way”, in Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad; John L. Esposito, Muslims on the Americanization Path? Oxford University Press, 2000, p.192.
  14. Jump up^ Ortíz de Montellano, Bernard & Gabriel Haslip Viera & Warren Barbour, “They Were NOT Here Before Columbus: Afrocentric Hyperdiffusionism in the 1990s”. Ethnohistory, Duke University Press, issued by the American Society for Ethnohistory, 44 (2): pp.199-234
  15. Jump up^ Bloom, Harold,The American Religion The Emergence of the Christian Nation Post, New York, Simon Schuster, 1992, p.252.
  16. Jump up^ Edward E. Curtis IV, “Black Muslim Religion in the Nation of Islam, 1960-1975,” University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, 2006, p.11.
  17. Jump up^ Bay, Mia,The White Picture in the Black Mind: African-American Ideas about White People, 1830-1925, Oxford University Press, 2000, p.213.
  18. Jump up^ Lawrence H. Mamiya, “Minister Louis Farrakhan and the Final Call: Schism in the Muslim Movement,” Earle H. Waugh (ed)The Muslim Community in North America, University of Alberta Press ,: Edmonton, 1983. 234.
  19. Jump up^ Dean E. RobinsonBlack Nationalism in American Politics and Thought, Cambridge University Press, 2001, p.46.
  20. Jump up^ Gates, Henry Louis, “Farrakhan Speaks,”Transition: An International Review, Summer 1996, pp.140-167; Ostow, Mortimer, “Black Myths and Black Madness: Is Black Antisemitism Different?”, In Alan Helmreich; Paul Marcus (ed)Blacks and Jews on the Couch: Psychoanalytic Reflections on Black-Jewish Conflict, Praeger Publishers, 1998, p.86
  21. Jump up^ “National Geographic Proves Teaching on Mr. Yakub”, The Final Call , May 23, 2013; “Myth or high science? Is there evidence of Mr. Yakub?”, The Final Call , Oct 24, 2010
  22. Jump up^ Liukkonen, Petri. “Amiri Baraka” . Books and Writers (kirjasto.sci.fi). Finland: Kuusankoski Public Library. Archived from the original on May 4, 2009.
  23. ^ Jump up to:b Melani McAlister, “Encounters: Culture, Media, and US Interests in the Middle East, 1945-2000, University of California Press, Berkeley, CA, 2001, pp.105-7
  24. ^ Jump up to:b Charise L. Cheney Brothers Gonna Work It Out: Sexual Politics in the Golden Age of Rap Nationalism , New York University Press, 2005, pp.81; 135.
  25. Jump up^ https://genius.com/Ghostface-killah-one-lyrics
  26. Jump up^ Nation of Islam

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