Jewish question

The  Jewish issue  Was a wide-ranging debate in 19th and 20th century European society Pertaining to the status and Appropriate treatment of Jews in Society. The debate was similar to other so-called ” national issues ” and dealt with the civil, legal, national and political status of Jews, especially in Europe in the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries.

The debate started within societies, politicians and writers in Western Europe and Europe influenced by the Age of Enlightenment and the ideals of the French Revolution . The issues included the economic and legal Jewish disabilities (eg Jewish quotas and segregation ), Jewish assimilation , Jewish emancipation and Jewish Enlightenment .

The expression has been used by antisemitic movements from the 1880s onwards, culminating in the Nazi phrase “the Final Solution to the Jewish Question”. Similarly, the phrase was used by proponents for and opponents of the establishment of an autonomous Jewish homeland or a sovereign Jewish state .

More recently, white nationalists , members of the alt-right , and neo-Nazis have used the acronym “JQ” to refer to the Jewish question.  [1]

History of “The Jewish Question”

Further information: History of the Jews in Europe

The term “Jewish Question” was first used in Great Britain in around 1750.  citation needed  ]  According to Holocaust scholar Lucy Dawidowicz , the term “Jewish Question,” as introduced in Western Europe , was a neutral expression for the negative attitude towards the apparent and persistent singularity of the Jews as a people against the background of the rising political nationalisms and new nation-states . Dawidowicz writes that “the histories of Jewish emancipation and European antisemitism are replete with proffered ‘solutions to the Jewish question.'”  [2]  The question was discussed in France (“The Jewish Question”) after the French Revolution in 1789, before arriving in Germany via Bruno Bauer’s treatise “Die Judenfrage” – The Jewish Question.

From the point of view of other tractates, pamphlets, newspaper articles and books have been written on the subject, with many offering solutions including resettlement, deportation and assimilation of the Jewish population. Similarly, hundreds of pieces of literature have been written opposing these solutions and have been offered as such as re-integration and education. This issue, however, could not be determined by the German Jews’ opponents or vice versa: the problem posed by the existence of the German Jews to their opponents.

From around 1860 the notion of an antisemitic tendency has been described: Germans’ own country. Antisemites such as Wilhelm Marr , Karl Eugen Dühring , Theodor Fritsch , Houston Chamberlain Stewart , Paul de Lagardeand others declared it to be unsolvable through integration, in order to make their demands for the “de-jewifying” of the press, education, culture, state and economy, plausible, along with their demands for the condemnation of inter-marriage between Jews and non-Jews. They also used this definition of the Jews out of their supposedly socially dominant positions.

By far the most infamous use of this expression by the Nazis in the early and mid-twentieth century, culminating in the implementation of ” Final Solution to the Jewish Question” during World War II .  [3]  [4]

Early use

An early use of the expression “Jewish question” appeared during the Jew Bill of 1753 debates in England.  [5]  According to Otto Dov Kulka  [6]  of Hebrew University , the term became widespread in the nineteenth century when it was used in discussions about Jewish emancipation in Germany (  Judenfrage  ).  [5]

Bruno Bauer –  The Jewish Question 

In his book  The Jewish Question  , published in 1843, ” Bauer argued that Jews can achieve political emancipation only if they relinquish their particular religious consciousness, because of political emancipation requires a secular state , which he assumes does not leave any” space “for social identities such as religion . According to Bauer, such religious demands are incompatible with the idea of ​​the ” Rights of Man .” True political emancipation, for Bauer, requires the abolition of religion.

Karl Marx –  On the Jewish Question 

Karl Marx replied to Bauer in his 1844 essay  On the Jewish Question  . Marx contradicted Bauer’s view that the nature of the Judaism’s Jewish religion is assimilated. The focus of the study on the specific social and economic role of the Jewish group in Europe, which, according to him, was lost when capitalism, the material basis for Judaism, assimilated the European societies as a whole.  [7]

Marx uses Bauer’s essay as an opportunity for his own analysis of liberal rights. Marx argues that Bauer is mistaken in his assumption that a ” secular state “, religion will no longer play prominent role in social life, and, as an example relates to the pervasiveness of religion in the United States , which unlike Prussia, had no state religion . In Marx’s analysis, the “secular state” is not opposed to religion, but rather actually requires it. The removal of religion or property, but only introduces a way of considering individuals in abstraction of religion.  [8] On this note Marx moves beyond the issue of religious freedom to his real concern with Bauer’s analysis of “political emancipation.” Marx concludes that while individuals may be spiritually and politically free in a secular state, they may still be bound to material constraints on economic inequality, an assumption that would later form the basis of his critics of capitalism .

After Marx

Werner Sombart Praised Jews for Their capitalism and presented the Seventeenth-eighteenth century short Jews have integrated and a model for integration.  [9]  By the turn of the twentieth century, Dreyfus Affair in France , the debate was still widely discussed and raised to prominence by the Dreyfus Affair . Within the religious and political elite, some continued to favor assimilation and political commitment in Europe  citation needed  ]  while others, Such As Theodore Herzl , the Proposed advancement of a separate Jewish state and the Zionist cause.  [10] Between 1880 and 1920, millions of other Jews sought their own solution for the pogroms of eastern Europe by emigration to other places, such as the United States and Western Europe.

The Final Solution

In Nazi Germany , the term  Jewish Question  (in German :  Judenfrage  ) Referred to the sense that the existence of Jews in Germany posed a problem for the state. In 1933 two Nazi theorists, Johann von Leers and Achim Gercke , both proposed that the Jewish Question could be solved by resettling Jews in Madagascar or elsewhere in Africa or South America. Both intellectuals discussed the claims of the German and the French, but of Leers asserted that establishing a Jewish homeland in British Palestine would create a humanitarian and political problems for the region.  [11]  Upon achieving power in 1933, Hitlerand the Nazi state began to implement the severe measures of segregating and ultimately removing the Jewish people from Germany and (eventually) all of Europe.  [12]  The next stage was the persecution of Jews and the stripping of Jews of their citizenship through the Nuremberg Laws .  [13]  [14]  Later, during World War II , it became state-sponsored internment in concentration camps  [15]  and finally, the systematic extermination of the Jewish people ( The Holocaust ),  [16]  which took place in the world. called  Final Solution to the Jewish Question  .  [3]  [17]  [18]

Propaganda

Nazi propaganda was produced to manipulate the public, most notably based on the writings of Eugen Fischer , Fritz Lenz and Erwin Baur in the book  Foundations of Human Heredity Teaching and Racial Hygiene  . And in the book  Die Freigabe der Vernichtung lebensunwerten Lebens  (“Allowing the Destruction of Life Unworthy of Living”) by Karl Binding and Alfred Hoche in pseudo-scholarship created by Gerhard Kittel . In occupied France, the collaborationist regime established its own Institute for studying the Jewish Questions .

See also

  • Armenian Question
  • ” Negro Question “
  • Ulrich Fleischhauer
  • Useful Jew

Further reading

Lucien Wolf , Notes on the Diplomatic History of the Jewish Question , Jewish Historical Society of England (1919)

Henry Ford : The International Jew – The World’s Foremost Problem , Articles from The Dearborn Independent, (1920)

Elisabeth Roudinesco , Returning to the Jewish Question , London, Polity Press, December 2013, p. 280

References

  1. Jump up^   Kestenbaum, Sam. “White Nationalists Create New Shorthand for the ‘Jewish Question ‘ ” .  The Forward  . Retrieved 25 May 2017 .
  2. Jump up^  Lucy Dawidowicz, The War Against the Jews, 1933-1945 (New York, 1975), pp. xxii-xxiii.
  3. ^ Jump up to: b   Stig Moller-Hornshoj (1998-10-24). “Hitler’s speech to the Reichstag of January 30, 1939” .  The Holocaust History Project  . Archived from the original on March 14, 2008 . Retrieved 2008-03-25 .
  4. Jump up^  Ferret, Francois.  Unanswered Questions: Nazi Germany and the Genocide of the Jews  . Schocken Books (1989), p. 182; ISBN 0-8052-4051-9
  5. ^ Jump up to: b   “Essay based on the introduction to the  ‘Jewish Question’ in German Speaking Countries, 1848-1914, A Bibliography  , in  The Felix Posen Bibliographic Project on Antisemitism  (Jerusalem: Hebrew University, 1994); March 2008 ” . Archived from the original on 25 November 2005.
  6. Jump up^  As of 2008 Otto Dov Kulka’s works are out of print, but the following is available in microfilm: Reminiscences of Otto Dov Kulka (Glen Rock, New Jersey: Microfilming Corp. of America, 1975),ISBN 0 -88455-598-4and 9780884555988, OCLC 5326379.
  7. Jump up^  Karl Marx (February 1844). “On the Jewish Question” .  Deutsch-Französische Jahrbücher  . Retrieved 2008-03-25 .
  8. Jump up^  Marx 1844:

    [T] he political annulment of private property not only fails to abolish private property but even presupposes it. The state abolishes, in its own way, distinctions of birth, social rank, education, occupation, when it declares that birth, social rank, education, occupation, are non-political distinctions, when it proclaims, without regard to these distinctions, that Every member of the nation is an equal participant in national sovereignty, when it treats all elements of the real life of the nation from the standpoint of the state. Nevertheless, the state permits private property, education, occupation, to act in their way – ie, as private property, as education, as occupation, and to exert the influence of their special nature. Far from abolishing these real distinctions, the state only exists on the presupposition of their existence;

  9. Jump up^  Werner Sombart (1911) [translated in 2001].  The Jews and Modern Capitalism  (PDF) . Batoche Books . Retrieved 2008-03-25 .
  10. Jump up^  Theodor Herzl (1896).  Der Judenstaat: Versuch einer modernen Lösung der Judenfrage  (in German). Mr Breitenstein’s Verlags-Buchhandlung . Retrieved 2008-03-25 .
  11. Jump up^   Dr. Achim Gercke. “Solving the Jewish Question” .
  12. Jump up^  David M. Crowe. The Holocaust: Roots, History, and Aftermath. Westview Press, 2008.
  13. Jump up^  Adolf Hitler ; Wilhelm Frick ; Franz Gürtner ; Rudolf Hess (1935-09-15). “Nuremberg Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honor”. Archived from the original on 2008-03-19 . Retrieved 2008-03-25 .
  14. Jump up^   Adolf Hitler; Wilhelm Frick (1935-09-15). “Reich Citizenship Law” . Archived from the original on 2008-03-21 . Retrieved 2008-03-25 .
  15. Jump up^   Doris Bergen (2004-2005). “Germany and the Camp System” .  Auschwitz: Inside the Nazi State  . Community Television of Southern California . Retrieved 2008-03-25 .
  16. Jump up^  Niewyk, Donald L. The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust,  Columbia University Press, 2000, p.45: “The Holocaust is commonly defined as the murder of more than 5,000,000 Jews by the Germans in World War II.” Also see “The Holocaust,” Encyclopædia Britannica , 2007: “the systematic state-sponsored killing of six million Jewish men, women and children, and millions of others, by Nazi Germany and its collaborators during World War II. the final solution to the Jewish question. “
  17. Jump up^   Gord McFee (1999-01-02). “When did Hitler decide on the Final Solution?” .  The Holocaust History Project  . Archived from the originalon 2015-06-02 . Retrieved 2008-03-25 .
  18. Jump up^  For some extra depth, the interested reader might readWannsee Conferenceas well.

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