Jewish Bolshevism

Jewish Bolshevism  , also known as  Judeo-Bolshevism  , is an anti- Semitic and anti-communist duck who alleges that the Jews were at the origin of the Russian Revolution and held power among Bolsheviks . Similarly, the  Jewish Communism  theory implies that Jews have been dominating the Communist movements in the world. It is similar to the ZOG conspiracy theory , which asserts that Jews control world politics.  [1]  The expressions have been used as a catchword for the assertion that Communism is a Jewish conspiracy.

In Poland, “Judeo-Bolshevism” was known as ” Żydokomuna ” and was used as an antisemitic stereotype.  [2]

The expression was the title of a pamphlet,  The Jewish Bolshevism  , and became prevalent after the 1917 October Revolution in Russia, featuring prominently in the propaganda of the anti-communist ” White ” forces during the Russian Civil War .

The theory was later propagated by the Nazi Party and their American sympathizers.  [3]  [4]  [5]  [6]

Origins

White movement propaganda poster from the Russian Civil War era (1919), a caricature of Leon Trotsky , who was viewed as a symbol of Jewish Bolshevism.  [7]

The conflation of Jews and revolution Emerged in the atmosphere of destruction of Russia During World War I . When the revolutions of 1917 crippled Russia’s war effort, conspiracy theories grew up – even far from Berlin and Petrograd, many Britons for example, ascribed the Russian Revolution to an “apparent conjunction of Bolsheviks, Germans and Jews.”  [8]

The worldwide spread of the concept in the 1920s is associated with the publication of the  Protocols of the Elders of Zion  , a fraudulent document that purposed to describe a secret Jewish conspiracy aimed at world domination. The expression made an issue out of the Jewishness of some leading Bolsheviks (most notably Leon Trotsky ) during and after the October Revolution. Daniel Pipes says that “primarily through  the Protocols of the Elders of Zion  , the Whites spread these charges to an international audience.”  [9]  James Webb wrote that it is rare to find an antisemitic source after 1917 that … “does not stand in debt to the White Russiananalysis of the Revolution. ”  [10]

Jewish involvement in Russian Communism

Main articles: History of the Jews in Russia and History of the Jews in the Soviet Union

Antisemitism in the Russian Empire was both culturally and institutionally. The Jews were restricted to live within the Pale of Settlement ,  [11]  and suffered pogroms .  [12]  [13]  Between 1881 and 1920, more than two million Jews left Russia.  [14]

As a result, many Jews supported gradual or revolutionary changes within the Russian Empire . Those movements ranged from the far left ( Jewish Anarchism ,  [15]  Bundists , Bolsheviks , Mensheviks  [16]  ) to moderate left ( Trudoviks  [17]  ) and constitutionalist ( Constitutional Democrats  [18]  ) parties. On the eve of the February Revolution in 1917, of about 23,000 members of the Bolshevik party 364 (about 1.6%) were known to be ethnic Jews.  [14] According to the 1922 Bolshevik party census, there were 19,564 Jewish Bolsheviks, comprising 5.21% of the total, and in the 1920s of the 417 members of the Central Executive Committee, the Central Committee party, the Presidium of the Executive of the Soviets of the USSR and the Russian Republic, People’s Commissars, 6% were ethnic Jews.  [19]  Between 1936 and 1940, during the Great Purge , Yezhovshchina and after the rapprochement with Nazi Germany , Stalin had become strong Jews from senior party, government, diplomatic, security and military positions.  [20]

Some scholars have grossly exaggerated Jewish presence in the Soviet Communist Party. For example, journalist David Aaronovich quotes Alfred Jensen as saying that in the 1920s “75 percent of the leading Bolsheviks” were “of Jewish origin”.  Better source needed  ]  Selon Aaronovitch, “a cursory examination of membership of the committees top face shows this to be an absurd exaggeration.”  [21]

Nazi Germany

Vladimir Lenin , Karl Radek , Julius Martov , and Emma Goldman . Caricatures of Bolshevik leaders from Alfred Rosenberg ‘s  The Jewish Bolshevism

Walter Laqueur traces the Jewish-Bolshevik conspiracy theory to Nazi ideologist Alfred Rosenberg , for whom Bolshevism was “the revolt of the Jewish, Slavic and Mongolian races against the German ( Aryan ) element in Russia”. Germans, according to Rosenberg, had been responsible for Russia’s historic achievements and had been sidelined by the Bolsheviks, who did not represent the interests of the Russian people, but rather those of its ethnic Jewish and Chinese population.  [22]

Michael Kellogg In His PhD thesis Argues que la racist ideology of the Nazis to a significant extent Was Influenced by White emigrants in Germany, Many of Whom, while being white form subjects of the Russian Empire, Were of non-Russian descent: ethnic Germans , residents of Baltic lands, including Baltic Germans, and Ukrainians. Of particular role was their  Aufbau  organization (Aufbau: Wirtschafts-politische Vereinigung für den Osten (Reconstruction: Economic-Political Organization for the East.) For example, its leader was instrumental in making the  Protocols of the Elders of Zion  available in German language. He argues that early Hitler was rather philosemitic, and has become rabidly anti-Semitic since 1919 under the influence of the White emigre convictions about the conspiracy of the Jews, an unseen unity of financial capitalists to Bolsheviks, to conquer the world.  [23]  Therefore, his conclusion is that White emigrants were at the source of the Nazi concept of Jewish Bolshevism. Annemarie Sammartino argues that this view is questionable. While there is no doubt that White emigres were instrumental in reinforcing the idea of ​​’Jewish Boslhevism’ among Nazis, the concept was also found in many German early post-World War I papers. Also, Germany had its own share of Jewish Communists “to provide fodder for the paranoid fantasies of German antisemites” without Russian Bolsheviks.  [24]

During the 1920s, Hitler declared that the mission of the Nazi movement was to destroy “Jewish Bolshevism”.  [25]  Hitler asserted that the “three vices” of “Jewish Marxism” were democracy, pacifism and internationalism,  [26]  and that the Jews were behind Bolshevism, communism and Marxism.  [27]

In Nazi Germany , this concept of Jewish Bolshevism reflected a common perception that Communism was a Jewish-inspired and Jewish-led movement seeking world domination from its origin. The term Was popularized in print in German journalist Dietrich Eckhart ‘s 1924 pamphlet “Der Bolschewismus von Moses bis Lenin” ( “Bolshevism from Moses to Lenin”) qui Depicted Moses and Lenin as being white Both Communists and Jews. Reviews This was Followed by Alfred Rosenberg ‘s 1923 edition of the  Protocols of the Elders of Zion  and Hitler ‘s  Mein Kampf  in 1925, qui saw Bolshevism as “Twentieth Century Jewry’s attempt to take world dominion unto Itself.”

According to French Spymaster and Writer Henri Rollin , “Hitlerism” was based on “anti-Soviet counter-revolution” promoting the “myth of a mysterious Jewish-Masonic-Bolshevik plot”, entailing that the First World War had been instigated by a vast Jewish-Masonic conspiracy to topple the Russian, German, and Austro-Hungarian Empires and implement Bolshevism by fomenting liberal ideas.  [28]  [  page needed  ]

A major source for propaganda about Jewish Bolshevism in the 1930s and early 1940s was the pro-Nazi and anti   Semitic international  Welt-Dienst  news agency founded in 1933 by Ulrich Fleischhauer .

Within the German Army, a tendency to see Soviet Communism as a Jewish conspiracy had grown since the First World War, something that became officialized under the Nazis. A 1932 pamphlet by Ewald Banse of the Government-funded German National Association for Military Sciences describes the Soviet leadership as mostly Jewish, dominating an apathetic and mindless Russian population.  [29]

Anti-Soviet Nazi propaganda poster in the Polish language, the text reads “Death! To Jewish-Bolshevik pestilence of murder!”

Propaganda produced in 1935 by the psychological warfare laboratory of the German War Ministry of the Soviet Union as “mostly filthy Jews” and called on Red Army soldiers to rise up and kill their “Jewish commissars”. This material was not used at the time, but served as a basis for propaganda in the 1940s.  [30]

Members of the SS were encouraged to fight against the “Jewish Bolshevik sub-humans”. In the pamphlet  The SS as an Anti-Bolshevist Fighting Organization  , published in 1936,  Reichsfuehrer-SS Heinrich Himmler wrote:

We shall take care that never again in Germany, the heart of Europe, will the Jewish-Bolshevist revolution of subhumans be able to be kindled from within.  [31]

In his speech to the  Reichstag  justifying Operation Barbarossa in 1941, Hitler said:

For more than two decades the Jewish Bolshevik regime in Moscow has not yet been set to work in Germany. The Jewish Bolshevik rulers in Moscow just spiritually, but also in terms of military power … Now the time has come to confront the plot of the Anglo-Saxon Jewish war-mongers and the Jews of the Bolshevik center in Moscow!  [32]

Field-Marshal Wilhelm Keitel gave an order on September 12, 1941 which declared: “The struggle against Bolshevism demands ruthless and energetic, rigorous action above all against the Jews, the carriers of Bolshevism.  [33]

Historian Richard J. Evans wrote that the Wehrmacht officers considered the Russians as “sub-human”, and were from the time of the invasion of Poland in 1939, telling the story of “the war vermin”. The war against the Soviet Union was variously described as “Jewish Bolshevik subhumans”, the “Mongol hordes”, the “Asiatic flood” and the “red beast”, language clearly intended to produce war crimes by reducing the enemy to something less than human.  [34]

Joseph Goebbels published an article in 1942 called “the so-called Russian soul” in which he claimed that Bolshevism was exploiting the Slavs and that the battle of the Soviet Union would be determined by international Jewry.  [35]

Nazi propaganda presented Barbarossa as an ideological-racial war between German National Socialism and “Judeo-Bolshevism”, dehumanizing the Soviet enemy as a force of Slavic  Untermensch  (subhumans) and “Asiatic” savages engaging in “barbaric Asiatic fighting methods” commanded by evil Jewish commissars whom German troops were to grant no mercy.  [36]  The vast majority of the Wehrmacht officers and soldiers tend to watch the war in Nazi terms, see their Soviet opponents as sub-human.  [37]

While National Socialism brought about a new version and formulation of European culture, Bolshevism is the declaration of war by the international Jewish-led subhumans against culture itself. It is not only anti-bourgeois, it is anti-cultural. It means, in the final consequence, the absolute destruction of all economic, social, state, cultural, and civilizing advances made by Western civilization for the benefit of a rootless and nomadic international clique of conspirators, who found their representation in Jewry.

-   Joseph Goebbels, Nazi Party Congress in Nuremberg, September 1935  [38]

Outside Nazi Germany

Great Britain, 1920s

In the early 1920s, a British anti-Semitic leader, Henry Hamilton Beamish , stated that Bolshevism was the same thing as Judaism.  [39]  In the same decade, Prime Minister Winston Winston Churchill penned an editorial entitled “Zionism versus Bolshevism,” which was published in the  Illustrated Sunday Herald.  In the article, which asserted that Zionism and Bolshevism are engaged in a “struggle for the soul of the Jewish people”, he called the Jews to repudiate “the Bolshevik conspiracy” and make clear that “the Bolshevik movement is not a Jewish movement” but stated that:

[Bolshevism] among the Jews is nothing new. From the days of Spartacus-Weishaupt to those of Karl Marx, and down to Trotsky (Russia), Bela Kun (Hungary), Rosa Luxemburg (Germany), and Emma Goldman(United States), this world-wide conspiracy for the overthrow of civilization and for the reconstitution of society on the basis of arrested development, of malevolence, and impossible equality, has been steadily growing.  [40]

Author Gisela C. Lebzelter commented that Churchill’s analysis failed to analyze the role of the Jewish oppression of Jews, but rather “to inherent inclinations rooted in Jewish character and religion.”  [41]

Works propagating the Jewish Bolshevism duck

The Jewish Bolshevism

The Jewish Bolshevism  is a 31- or 32-page antisemitic pamphlet published in London in 1922 and 1923 by the Britons Publishing Society . It included a foreword by the German Nazi leader Alfred Rosenberg who promulgated the concept of “Jewish Bolshevism”.

This relatively obscure publication embodies the Nazi doctrine that ” Jewishness ” and Bolshevism are the same; or that Bolshevism is Jewish, whether or not Jewish is included within Bolshevism. Bolsheviks as Jews; by birth, by name or by demographics .

According to Singerman,  The Jewish Bolshevism  , which he dubs as item “0121” in his Bibliography, is “Identical in content to item” 0120 “, the pamphlet  The Grave Diggers of Russia  , which was published in 1921 in Germany, by Dr. E. Boepple In 1922, historian Gisela C. Lebzelter wrote: “The Britons published a booklet entitled Jewish Bolshevism, which featured drawings of Russian leaders supplemented by their comments on their Jewish descent and affiliation. This booklet, which was prefaced by Alfred Rosenberg , had previously been published in English by  Völkisch Deutscher Volksverlag  . ”  [42]

The Octopus

The Octopus  is a 256-page book self-published in 1940 by Elizabeth Dilling under the pseudonym “Rev. Frank Woodruff Johnson”. In it she describes her theories of Jewish Bolshevism.  [43]

Behind Communism

Frank L. Britton, editor of  The American Nationalist  published a book,  Behind Communism  , in 1952 which spread the myth that Communism was a Jewish conspiracy originating in Palestine .  [44]

Criticism of the Jewish Bolshevism Duck

Researchers in the topic, such as Polish philosopher Stanisław Krajewski ”  [45]  or André Gerrits,  [46]  denouncing the concept of Jewish Bolshevism as a prejudice Law professor Ilya Somin agrees, and compares Jewish involvement in other communist countries” Overrepresentation of A group in a political movement does not prove that the movement has been dominated by that group or interests. The idea that communist oppression was somehow occurred in China , North Korea , and Cambodia , where the Jewish presence was and is tiny. ”  [47]

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